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In vitro tissue culture systems are required for plant–microbe interaction studies on European ash, Fraxinus excelsior. Methods are needed for plant micropropagation and for physiological experimentation including pathogen/resistance testing and biocontrol studies. For example, systems are required for experiments on ash dieback disease, caused by the ascomycete fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, that is killing ash plantations and natural populations across its native range. Methods are also needed to optimise the number of endophytes cultured from ash tissue and to taxonomically identify them. We present endophyte isolation protocols and media for ash, provide an optimised DNA barcoding procedure for endophyte identification and describe in vitro tissue culture methods suitable for ash–microbe interaction studies in both roots and shoots. Methods for both embryo culture and seed culture (with precutting) and for the bulking up of genotypes via single node culture are outlined. We also discuss the potential of tissue culture for establishing microbe/endophyte-free cultures.
Organometallic molecules containing covalently linked gallium and arsenic or indium and phosphorus have been synthesized and characterized spectroscopically and by X-ray diffraction. These precursors can be transformed into the corresponding III-V materials in a chemical reaction proceeding at ambient temperature. The compound semiconductors prepared in this way are obtained as amorphous powders. During the reaction, quantum size effects may be observed by UV-VIS spectroscopy as the particles grow.
And God gave Solomon wisedome, and understanding, exceeding much, and largenesse of heart, even as the sand that is on the sea shoare.
And Solomons wisedome excelled the wisedome of all the children of the East countrey, and all the wisedome of Egypt.
For hee was wiser then all men; then Ethan the Ezrahite, and Heman, and Chalcol, and Darda the sonnes of Mahol: and his fame was in all nations round about.
– 1 Kings 4.29–31
In recent years, scholars with intimate knowledge of Hebraic sources have greatly expanded our understanding of Milton's intellectual debts to non-Christian texts. In Milton's Epics and the Book of Psalms (1989), for example, Mary Ann Radzinowicz examines Milton's lifelong appreciation of Hebraic poetics, focusing on the poet's translations and appropriations of the Psalms. Rather than identify specific intellectual debts of a religious or legalistic nature, Radzinowicz considers instead how a stylistic appreciation of Hebrew Scripture shaped Milton's own prosody. In Torah and Law in Paradise Lost (1994), Jason Rosenblatt complicates the traditional understanding of the poet's Pauline hermeneutics, revealing that Milton's attitude toward Mosaic law was far less cynical and condemnatory than the views of other contemporary English Protestants. Rather than denigrate the Hebraic emphasis on obedience as established through covenant rather than grace, Milton uses the Old Testament's high regard for law – according to Rosenblatt – as a basis both for his scriptural justification of divorce and his empathetic depiction of prelapsarian Edenic happiness.
Little evidence exists to indicate whether community psychiatric nurses can achieve the results reported by expert cognitive–behavioural therapists in patients with schizophrenia.
To assess the effectiveness and safety of a brief cognitive— behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention in a representative community sample of patients with schizophrenia in secondary care settings.
A pragmatic randomised trial was performed involving 422 patients and carers to compare a brief CBT intervention against treatment as usual.
Patients who received CBT (n=257) improved in overall symptomatology (P=0.015; number needed to treat [NNT]= 13), insight (P<0.001; NNT=10) and depression (P=0.003;NNT=9) compared with the control group (n=165). Insight was clinically significantly improved (risk ratio =1.15,95% C1 1.01-1.31). There was no increase in suicidal ideation.
Community psychiatric nurses can safely and effectively deliver a brief CBT intervention to patients with schizophrenia and their carers.
Launched with little more than a whimper during the Labour Party Conference the much vaunted National Service Framework for Mental Health (NSF–MH) outlines the Government's ‘ambitious agenda’ for mental health services (Department of Health, 1999a). The official driving force has been the desire to deliver a quality service throughout the whole NHS via clinical governance and underpinned by professional self-regulation. Developed following widespread consultation and with the advice of the External Reference Group (although some of this advice was clearly disregarded), the NSF–MH provides a series of seven core standards with examples of good practice. Although developed with general psychiatry and severe mental illness in mind, the NSF is not quite the ‘National Schizophrenia Framework’ that some envisaged, since it also acknowledges the needs of young people and the influence of developmental factors on adult mental health. The NSF–MH sets standards in five areas: mental health promotion, primary care and access to services, services for the severely mentally ill, caring about carers and preventing suicide. It is only the second to be published (the other being for coronary care) which is hopefully a reflection of the ‘priority’ once more being given to mental health. However, the near-simultaneous appointment of a cancer ‘tsar’ suggests that ‘priority’ is a readily used and easily diluted term.
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