Findings of the few psychotherapy outcome studies with depressed children and adolescents raise questions about whether or not treatments are sufficiently sensitive to developmental factors. Here we review the outcome data, then survey potentially relevant research on the cognitions, competencies, and coping behavior of depressed youngsters. Much of the work in each domain is both procedurally and theoretically adevelopmental, and the psychotherapy research does not appear to be well informed by research in the other domains. To help remedy this situation, for each domain we suggest key developmental questions that need to be answered, and we discuss implications for psychotherapy. We also propose a three-way partnership involving basic developmental research linked with research on relations between depression and various cognitive and behavioral processes, with both lines of inquiry informing the development and refinement of interventions.