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Children with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals (TOF/MAPCAs) are at risk for post-operative respiratory complications after undergoing unifocalisation surgery. Thus, we assessed and further defined the incidence of airway abnormalities in our series of over 500 children with TOF/MAPCAs as determined by direct laryngoscopy, chest computed tomography (CT), and/or bronchoscopy.
The medical records of all patients with TOF/MAPCAs who underwent unifocalisation or pulmonary artery reconstruction surgery from March, 2002 to June, 2018 were reviewed. Anaesthesia records, peri-operative bronchoscopy, and/or chest CT reports were reviewed to assess for diagnoses of abnormal or difficult airway. Associations between chromosomal anomalies and airway abnormalities – difficult anaesthetic airway, bronchoscopy, and/or CT findings – were defined.
Of the 564 patients with TOF/MAPCAs who underwent unifocalisation or pulmonary artery reconstruction surgery at our institution, 211 (37%) had a documented chromosome 22q11 microdeletion and 28 (5%) had a difficult airway/intubation reported at the time of surgery. Chest CT and/or peri-operative bronchoscopy were performed in 234 (41%) of these patients. Abnormalities related to malacia or compression were common. In total 35 patients had both CT and bronchoscopy within 3 months of each other, with concordant findings in 32 (91%) and partially concordant findings in the other 3.
This is the largest series of detailed airway findings (direct laryngoscopy, CT, and bronchoscopy) in TOF/MAPCAS patients. Although these findings are specific to an at-risk population for airway abnormalities, they support the utility of CT and /or bronchoscopy in detecting airway abnormalities in patients with TOF/MAPCAs.
Patients with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals are at risk for prolonged hospitalisation after unifocalisation. Feeding problems after congenital heart surgery are associated with longer hospital stay. We sought to determine the impact of baseline, intra-operative, and postoperative factors on the need for feeding tube use at the time of discharge.
We included patients with the aforementioned diagnosis undergoing unifocalisation from ages 3 months to 4 years from 2010 to 2016. We excluded patients with a pre-existing feeding tube. Patients discharged with an enteric tube were included in the feeding tube group. We compared the feeding tube group with the non-feeding-tube group by univariable and multi-variable logistic regression.
Of the 56 patients studied, 41% used tube feeding. Median age and weight z-score were similar in the two groups. A chromosome 22q11 deletion was associated with the need for a feeding tube (22q11 deletion in 39% versus 15%, p=0.05). Median cardiopulmonary bypass time in the feeding tube group was longer (335 versus 244 minutes, p=0.04). Prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation was associated with feeding tube use (48 versus 3%, p=0.001). On multi-variable analysis, prolonged mechanical ventilation was associated with feeding tube use (odds ratio 10.2, 95% confidence intervals 1.6; 63.8).
Among patients with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals who were feeding by mouth before surgery, prolonged mechanical ventilation after unifocalisation surgery was associated with feeding tube use at discharge. Anticipation of feeding problems in this population and earlier feeding tube placement may reduce hospital length of stay.
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