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Trauma and dissociation may be important factors contributing to the experiences of distressing voice hearing. However, there is scant mention of how to target and treat such processes when working with people with psychosis. This case study reports on an initial attempt to work with dissociation and trauma memories in a person with voices. A single case approach was used, with standardized measures used before, during and after 24 sessions of cognitive therapy, and at 6-month follow-up. In addition, session-by-session measures tracked frequency and distress associated with voices and dissociation. The participant reported significant improvements in terms of reduced frequency and distress of dissociation, and voice hearing, as well as improvement in low mood at the end of treatment. At follow-up there were enduring benefits in terms of dissociation and trauma-related experiences, as well as broad recovery but not of change in voices. This case illustrated the potential benefit of targeting dissociation and exposure to trauma memories in producing general symptom improvement and specific reductions in dissociation and voice hearing at end of treatment.
Solar Evolutionary Models are briefly reviewed and while the models are robust, there are uncertainties in the input data which justify rather larger errors. The 1992 experimental results from GALLEX, SAGE II and Kamiokande are shown to be consistent with calculated fluxes of solar neutrinos whereas the Chlorine results continue to be significantly low though this experiment has a problem with the high variability with time of its results in contradiction to Kamiokande. It is concluded that the evidence for a solar neutrino problem is not compelling and New Physics are not demanded. Further experiments are essential to search for neutrino masses and to study the Sun.
In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the role of dietary fibre in obesity management. Much of this interest stems from animal and human studies which suggest that an increased intake of fermentable fibre can suppress appetite and improve weight management. A growing number of reports have demonstrated that the principal products of colonic fermentation of dietary fibre, SCFA, contribute to energy homeostasis via effects on multiple cellular metabolic pathways and receptor-mediated mechanisms. In particular, over the past decade it has been identified that a widespread receptor system exists for SCFA. These G-protein-coupled receptors, free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) 2 and FFAR3 are expressed in numerous tissue sites, including the gut epithelium and adipose tissue. Investigations using FFAR2- or FFAR3-deficient animal models suggest that SCFA-mediated stimulation of these receptors enhances the release of the anorectic hormones peptide tyrosine tyrosine and glucagon-like peptide-1 from colonic L cells and leptin from adipocytes. In addition, the SCFA acetate has recently been shown to have a direct role in central appetite regulation. Furthermore, the SCFA propionate is a known precursor for hepatic glucose production, which has been reported to suppress feeding behaviour in ruminant studies through the stimulation of hepatic vagal afferents. The present review therefore proposes that an elevated colonic production of SCFA could stimulate numerous hormonal and neural signals at different organ and tissue sites that would cumulatively suppress short-term appetite and energy intake.
Surprisingly little is known about the spatial dimensions of most tropical ungulate migrations, including that of wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, a species famous for long-distance movements. Using non-invasive photographic identification of 834 adult wildebeest from 8,530 images collected over 4 years we characterize patterns of migratory connectivity throughout the northern Tarangire–Manyara Ecosystem, Tanzania. We document movements between Tarangire and Lake Manyara National Parks and northwards to the shore of Lake Natron, a straight-line distance of > 130 km. Fifty-six percent of observed movements occur outside the ecosystem's three main protected areas. We supplement photographic data with fine-scale movement data from two individuals with global positioning system collars, and identify three narrow bottlenecks, each vulnerable to human development. We discuss the possible consequences for the wildebeest population if these bottlenecks become impeded. Persistence of this migration alongside a growing human population and proposed road improvement will require additional measures to ensure that pathways remain open to wildlife movement and protected from illegal hunting.
Evidence regarding overestimation of the efficacy of antipsychotics and
underestimation of their toxicity, as well as emerging data regarding
alternative treatment options, suggests it may be time to introduce patient
choice and reconsider whether everyone who meets the criteria for a
schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis requires antipsychotics in order to
Butyrate is an important substrate for maintenance of colonic health and oligofructose fermentation by human faecal bacteria can increase butyrate production in vitro. However, oligofructose appears to be fermented by mainly acetate and lactate-producing bacteria rather than butyrate-producing bacteria. Isotope labelling studies using [U-13C6]glucose were used to show that 13C2 and 13C4 were the major labelled butyrate species produced from glucose fermentation, via [13C2]acetate–acetyl CoA as intermediate. Bacterial interconversion reactions were quantified and acetate conversion to butyrate and lactate conversion to acetate, propionate and butyrate were observed. Addition of oligofructose to faecal batch cultures significantly increased butyrate production. Of the newly synthesised butyrate from oligofructose fermentation, 80% was derived from interconversion of extracellular acetate and lactate, with acetate being quantitatively more significant. Carbohydrates, such as oligofructose, have prebiotic properties. In addition, oligofructose selectively stimulates the bacterial conversion of acetate and lactate to butyrate. Carbohydrates with similar properties represent a refinement of the prebiotic definition, termed butyrogenic prebiotics, because of their additional functionality.
Patients who self-poison are at increased risk of future self-poisoning and early death. Admission patterns and effective treatment strategies are unclear although psychosocial assessment may reduce readmissions. This study aimed to determine admission patterns and the proportion of patients receiving a psychiatric assessment in 4220 consecutive admissions.
The average age was 34 years (s.d.=13, range 13–94); most were female (56 v. 44%, P<50.001). Twelve per cent of patients were aged 13–18 years, again the majority were female (70 v. 30%, P<50.001). Twenty per cent of patients had multiple admissions, accounting for 42% of the total admissions. There were slightly more admissions per day at the weekend (Friday, Saturday and Sunday; P<0.002). As many as 245 patients were either not referred or ‘self-discharged’ before they were assessed by the liaison psychiatry service.
These findings may help target medical resources, suggesting that consistent numbers of staff are required during all days of the week.
Clinical prediction rules are decision-making tools that incorporate three or more variables from the history, physical examination or simple tests. They help clinicians make diagnostic or therapeutic decisions by standardizing the collection and interpretation of clinical data. There is growing interest in the methodological standards for their development and validation. This article describes the methods used to derive the Canadian C-Spine Rule and provides a valuable reference for investigators planning to develop future clinical prediction rules.
This paper is Part I of a 2-part series to describe the background and methodology for the Canadian C-Spine Rule study to develop a clinical decision rule for rational imaging in alert and stable trauma patients. Current use of radiography is inefficient and variable, in part because there has been a lack of evidence-based guidelines to assist emergency physicians. Clinical decision rules are research-based decision-making tools that incorporate 3 or more variables from the history, physical examination or simple tests. The Canadian CT Head and C-Spine (CCC) Study is a large collaborative effort to develop clinical decision rules for the use of CT head in minor head injury and for the use of cervical spine radiography in alert and stable trauma victims. Part I details the background and rationale for the development of the Canadian C-Spine Rule. Part II will describe in detail the objectives and methods of the Canadian C-Spine Rule study.
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