There has never been a Scottish school of international law. The concept of a “school” might, of course, be accorded a number of different meanings, but in any official sense the Scottish nation was never in a position to adopt a distinctive approach to international law. The union of the Scottish and English crowns (1603) and legislatures (1707) curtailed the opportunity for Scottish customs to be put forward as the evidence of national state practice. Moreover, it is difficult to show a critical mass of Scottish contributions to the subject, sufficient to form the basis for a national school of international legal theory. Indeed, in the 300 years up to World War I Scotland produced only a handful of significant contributions to the literature of international law: pre-eminently, William Welwood (1578-1622), William Scott (1674-1725), Sir James Mackintosh (1765-1832), James Reddie (1773-1852), James Lorimer (1818-90) , Viscount Finlay of Nairn (1842-1929) , Arthur Berriedale Keith (1879-1944), and Thomas W. Fulton ( 1855-1929).