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This study determined whether surrogate organisms can predict activity against Clostridium difficile spores and compared the efficacy of hand hygiene preparations against C. difficile. Our data suggest that surrogate organisms were not predictive of C. difficile spore removal. Four preparations were significantly more effective than tap water at removing C. difficile.
Strained SiGe was bonded to silicon dioxide by direct wafer bonding and Smart-cut technique. Strained SiGe with a graded 20%-30% Ge concentration was deposited by RTCVD on (100) Si to a thickness between 300nm to 350nm. H2+ for wafer splitting was implanted at an energy varied from 40 keV to 150 keV and a dose between 2.5E16 and 4.5E16 ions/cm2. SiGe relaxation was found to depend on wafer split temperature, and on post-split annealing temperature. SiGe relaxation of greater than 80% was observed after wafer splitting and annealing. Was it from gliding of a SiGe film weakly bonded to an oxide surface? In order to determine the relaxation mechanism, samples with different film structure were prepared. The films were then annealed at various temperatures. Some film showed a high degree of relaxation, and some showed minimal relaxation, depending mostly on hydrogen implant depth. The results indicated that the generation of dislocation is the possible cause of SiGe relaxation.
Alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are an effective means of decreasing the transmission of bacterial pathogens. Alcohol is not effective against Clostridium difficile spores. We examined the retention of C. difficile spores on the hands of volunteers after ABHR use and the subsequent transfer of these spores through physical contact.
Nontoxigenic C. difficile spores were spread on the bare palms of 10 volunteers. Use of 3 ABHRs and chlorhexidine soap-and-water washing were compared with plain water rubbing alone for removal of C. difficile spores. Palmar cultures were performed before and after hand decontamination by means of a plate stamping method. Transferability of C. difficile after application of ABHR was tested by having each volunteer shake hands with an uninoculated volunteer.
Plain water rubbing reduced palmar culture counts by a mean (± standard deviation [SD]) of 1.57 ± 0.11 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) per cm2, and this value was set as the zero point for the other products. Compared with water washing, chlorhexidine soap washing reduced spore counts by a mean ( ± SD) of 0.89 ± 0.34 log10 CFU per cm2; among the ABHRs, Isagel accounted for a reduction of 0.11 ± 0.20 log10 CFU per cm2 (P = .005), Endure for a reduction of 0.37 ± 0.42 log10 CFU per cm2 (P = .010), and Purell for a reduction of 0.14 ± 0.33 log10 CFU per cm2 (P = .005). There were no statistically significant differences between the reductions achieved by the ABHRs; only Endure had a reduction statistically different from that for water control rubbing (P = .040). After ABHR use, handshaking transferred a mean of 30% of the residual C. difficile spores to the hands of recipients.
Hand washing with soap and water is significantly more effective at removing C. difficile spores from the hands of volunteers than are ABHRs. Residual spores are readily transferred by a handshake after use of ABHR.
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