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Non-pharmacological interventions preferably precede pharmacological interventions in acute agitation. Reviews of pharmacological interventions remain descriptive or compare only one compound with several other compounds. The goal of this study is to compute a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect on restoring calmness after a pharmacological intervention, so a more precise recommendation is possible.
A search in Pubmed and Embase was done to isolate RCT’s considering pharmacological interventions in acute agitation. The outcome is reaching calmness within maximum of 2 h, assessed by the psychometric scales of PANSS-EC, CGI or ACES. Also the percentages of adverse effects was assessed.
Fifty-three papers were included for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Most frequent studied drug is olanzapine. Changes on PANNS-EC and ACES at 2 h showed the strongest changes for haloperidol plus promethazine, risperidon, olanzapine, droperidol and aripiprazole. However, incomplete data showed that the effect of risperidon is overestimated. Adverse effects are most prominent for haloperidol and haloperidol plus lorazepam.
Olanzapine, haloperidol plus promethazine or droperidol are most effective and safe for use as rapid tranquilisation. Midazolam sedates most quickly. But due to increased saturation problems, midazolam is restricted to use within an emergency department of a general hospital.
Childhood trauma, psychosis risk, cognition, and depression have been identified as important risk markers for suicidal behaviors. However, little is known about the interplay between these distal and proximal markers in influencing the risk of suicide. We aim to investigate the interplay between childhood trauma, cognitive biases, psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and depression in predicting suicidal behaviors in a non-clinical sample of young adults.
In total, 3495 young adults were recruited to an online computer-assisted web interview. We used the Prodromal Questionnaire to assess PLEs. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Traumatic Experience Checklist (three items) and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q, three items). Cognitive biases were assessed with a short version of the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale. Suicidality, psychiatric diagnoses, and substance use were screened with a self-report questionnaire.
Childhood trauma, as well as PLEs, was associated with an approximately five-fold increased risk of suicidal thoughts and plans as well as suicide attempts. Participants with depression were six times more likely to endorse suicidal behaviors. Path analysis revealed that PLEs, depression and cognitive biases are significant mediators of the relationship between trauma and suicidal behaviors. The model explained 44.6% of the variance in lifetime suicidality.
Cognitive biases, PLEs, and depression partially mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and suicidal behaviors. The interplay between distal and proximal markers should be recognized and become part of clinical screening and therapeutic strategies for preventing risk of suicidality.
Radicalization is a process, by which individuals adopt extreme political, social and religious ideation that leads to mass violence acts. It has been hypothesized that mental health characteristics might be associated with a risk of radicalization. However, a qualitative synthesis of studies investigating the relationship between mental health and radicalization has not been performed so far. Therefore, we aimed to perform a systematic review of studies examining the association between mental health characteristics and the risk of radicalization. Two reviewers performed an independent search of online databases from their inception until 8th April 2018 and 12 publications met eligibility criteria. There were several methodological limitations across the majority of eligible publications, including doubtful sample representativeness, use of diagnostic procedures without personal assessment of mental health status or lack of standardized tools for assessment of mental health. Representative cross-sectional studies revealed that depressive symptoms might be associated with radicalization proneness. However, it remains unknown whether depressive symptoms are associated with resilience or vulnerability to radicalization. Another finding from our systematic review is that several personality traits might predispose to develop extreme ideation. Finally, there is some evidence that lone-actors might represent a specific subgroup of subjects with extreme beliefs which can be characterized by high prevalence of psychotic and/or mood disorders. In conclusion, this systematic review indicates that caution should be taken on how the association between ‘mental health’ and ‘radicalization’ is being claimed, because of limited evidence so far, and a number of methodological limitations of studies addressing this issue.
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