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To describe the relationships between physical activity, lifestyle determinants and obesity in adolescent Israeli schoolchildren.
Design and setting
The MABAT Youth Survey was a nationally representative, school-based study of youth in grades 7 to 12 (ages 11–19 years).
Self-administered questionnaires assessed health behaviours and anthropometric indices were measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between obesity, physical activity, socio-economic status and other lifestyle habits. One-way ANOVA was used to determine mean physical activity levels (MET values) by BMI categories.
The prevalence of overweight was 13–15 % and of obesity 4–9 % depending on gender and ethnicity, and was higher among the non-Jewish sectors. Thirty-six per cent and 57 % of Jewish girls and boys, and 40 % and 58 % of non-Jewish girls and boys, respectively, were optimally active. Boys from low socio-economic schools and those who slept for less than 6 h at night were less active. Girls from middle school were found to be 53 % more optimally physically active among Jews, and 89 % more among non-Jews, compared with girls from high school (P = 0·001); girls with less educated parents were also less physically active. No clear relationship was found between the level of obesity and physical activity.
Physical inactivity was strongly related to gender, age, social status, sleeping habits, hookah smoking, and parental educational status. Education and intervention programmes should focus on these risk factors.
To assess the 1999–2000 food security situation and the food relief programmes in Ethiopia, and evaluate the need for a national food and nutrition policy.
A systematic search of data sources from the Ethiopian Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission (DPPC), the Ethiopian Central Statistical Authority, the World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the bibliographic database Medline and direct contacts with associations, institutions and people concerned with food security in Ethiopia.
Consultations to WFP Ethiopia.
Food availability was severely restricted due to recurrent disasters such as drought, flood, war and a lack of diversity of food items. Food accessibility was limited due to a weak subsistence-agriculture-based economy, depletion of assets, absence of income diversity and a lack of alternative coping mechanisms. Food intake adequacy was rarely achieved due to food shortages, improper diet and poor sanitary conditions. There was a lack of early warning data to monitor food security indicators. Food aid programmes did not meet the requirements for food quantities and composition, and faced major obstacles in logistics and targeting of the vulnerable population.
Improvements in food security and the eradication of famine will require investment in sustainable projects. There is an immediate need for better planning and targeting of food aid and a national food security monitoring system. A national food and nutrition policy is recommended, focusing both on relief efforts and on underlying factors contributing to the famine.
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