To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
C. Caroline Blackwell, Discipline of Immunology and Microbiology and Hunter Immunology Unit, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia; Institute for Scientific Evaluation of Naturopathy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany,
Donald M. Weir, Department of Medical Microbiology, The Medical School, University of Edinburgh,
Abdulhamid M. Alkout, Department of Medical Microbiology, The Medical School, University of Edinburgh,
Omar R. Elahmer, Department of Medical Microbiology, The Medical School, University of Edinburgh,
Doris A. C. MacKenzie, Department of Medical Microbiology, The Medical School, University of Edinburgh,
Valerie S. James, Department of Medical Microbiology, The Medical School, University of Edinburgh,
J. Matthias Braun, Department of Medical Microbiology, The Medical School, University of Edinburgh; Institute for Scientific Evaluation of Naturopathy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany,
Osama M. Almadani, Department of Medical Microbiology, The Medical School University of Edinburgh; Forensic Medicine Unit, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom,
Anthony Busuttil, Forensic Medicine Unit, The Medical School University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
The first observations on associations between blood groups and infectious diseases were made in the 1950s, but the underlying mechanisms were not elucidated for many years. This could have been due to limited explanations for the epidemiological findings or to conflicting reports of associations between different blood groups with the same disease. An example of the latter is the large numbers of papers on Helicobacter pylori and ABO or Lewis blood groups/secretor status during the past few years which have reported inconsistent or conflicting results. Because determination of blood groups is a relatively simple and inexpensive procedure, many investigators have used it for quick “simple” studies without consideration of possible confounding factors. For all studies on blood groups and infection, the following points (gained with the experience of hindsight) need to be considered in planning or assessment of surveys:
The disease or organism under investigation needs to be clearly defined. Severity of the symptoms should be also be considered, e.g., differentiation of cases of Escherichia coli O157 infection between patients with uncomplicated diarrhoeal disease and those that develop haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) (Blackwell et al., 2002).
It should be made clear that the investigation examined an outbreak or defined epidemic due to a particular strain in contrast to sporadic cases which could be due to strains with different antigenic characteristics or virulence factors.
Different populations express different quantities of antigens such as H, Lewisa, or Lewisb.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.