In this article, data are presented from Parts A and B of the Trail Making Test, which examined the effects of haloperidol vs risperidone on cognitive function in treatment-resistant scxhizophrenic patients. This report focuses on findings from the Trail Making Test. Overall, risperidone had a positive effect on Trail Making Part B performance following 4 weeks of treatment. These effects were due, at least in part, to the direct effects of risperidone. The possibility that an antipsychotic agent can enhance executive functioning through direct mechanisms, perhaps mediated by frontal cortex neurochemistry, indicates that the evaluation of antipsychotic medications in the treatment of schizophrenia should be expanded to include cognition.