This study examined correlates of caregiving at the end of life provided by adult children to their older parents and the role of gender of adult children in family caregiving in rural China. Data came from five waves of the Longitudinal Study of Rural Elder’s Well-Being in Anhui Province, China, over 12 years and from a post-mortality survey. Hierarchical linear modeling was used. Findings demonstrated that the birth order of adult children, prior geographic distance, and prior intergenerational support exchange were significantly associated with family caregiving at the end of life. Eldest children, compared to other siblings, provided the most end-of-life caregiving to their parents. Children cohabitating with older parents before death provided the most caregiving, compared to other siblings. Adult children who had previously exchanged instrumental support with older parents before death, especially sons, tended to provide the most caregiving, compared with that by others, at end of life.