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Caregiver-mediated intervention (CMI), based on parent skills training, is a family-mediated intervention model for children with neurodevelopmental disorders, in particular autism spectrum disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CMI.
Thirty-three children (aged 22–69 months from our department) and their caregivers participated in a two-week training course of ten 90-minute lessons. Caregivers were encouraged to try their best to apply intervention skills in both home routines and play routines to encourage the development of cognition, motion, social adaptability, and behavior of children. Demographic information, video-recorded data, and diagnostic scales were collected at two key time points: baseline and post-training (PT – within six months).
Three aspects were assessed – primary variables, secondary variables, and correlation analyses. Results showed an improvement in PT in (1) Adult/Child Interaction Fidelity Rating (P < 0.01) and (2) adaptability of Gesell Developmental Scale and stereotyped behaviors and limited interests of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Moreover, a negative correlation occurred between caregiver skill improvement and parent education (P < 0.05), but without correlations with other demographics.
As an efficacious family intervention for both children and their caregivers, CMI is worth being generalized widely.
We investigated the drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV, and those diagnosed with only TB in Sichuan, China. TB isolates were obtained from January 2018 to December 2020 and subjected to drug susceptibility testing (DST) to 11 anti-TB drugs and to GeneXpert MTB/RIF testing. The overall proportion of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) isolates was 32.1% (n = 10 946). HIV testing was not universally available for outpatient TB cases, only 29.5% (3227/10 946) cases had HIV testing results. The observed proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) isolates was almost double than that of the national level, with approximately 1.5% and 0.1% of the isolates being extensively drug resistant and universally drug resistant, respectively. The proportions of resistant isolates were generally higher in 2018 and 2019 than in 2020. Furthermore, the sensitivities of GeneXpert during 2018–2020 demonstrated a downward trend (80.9, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 76.8–85.0; 80.2, 95% CI 76.4–84.1 and 75.4, 95% CI 70.7–80.2, respectively). Approximately 69.0% (7557/10 946) of the TB cases with DST results were subjected to GeneXpert detection. Overall, the DR-TB status and the use of GeneXpert in Sichuan have improved, but DR-TB challenges remain. HIV testing for all TB cases is recommended.
Tungstophosphoric acid-intercalated MgAl layer double hydroxides (LDHs) are active catalysts for removing naphthenic acids (NAs) from petroleum via esterification. Due to their active sites being in the interlayer, the interlayer spacing of LDHs might affect their activity, particularly for NAs with various structures. Herein, two tungstophosphoric acid-intercalated MgAl LDHs with various interlayer spacings (d003 = 1.46 and 1.07 nm) synthesized by varying the ion-exchange time were used as catalysts for esterification between NAs and ethylene glycol. Six NAs with various side chains and rings were used as model compounds to investigate the effects of NA structures and d003 values on the activity of LDHs. In general, NAs with large molecule sizes and steric hindrances are less reactive over the same catalyst. The LDH with a larger d003 value favours the esterification of NAs regardless of their structure, particularly NAs with large molecule sizes and steric hindrances. However, a large d003 is less effective for esterification of NAs with conjugated carboxyl groups. An enlarged interlayer space might facilitate NA molecules to access the interlayer of LDHs so as to come into contact with the catalytic sites, making this process responsible for the enhanced reactivity. The esterification kinetics of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid over these LDHs follow a first-order reaction. The activation energies for the LDHs with large and small d003 values are 26.25 and 32.18 kJ mol–1, respectively.
The construction of halloysite spherical capsules (halloysite aerogels) was reported for the first time in our previous work. The excellent performance of the microcapsule in functional carrying was also found in our further research. In this work, the anti-icing surface was fabricated by using halloysite nanotubes and halloysite spherical microcapsules. The fabrication of the anti-icing coating was investigated, and the ice nucleation behavior of droplet on the coating surface was studied. The modified halloysite nanotubes (F-HNTs) and the modified halloysite microcapsules (F-HAs) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric, and pore size distribution. The results show that the introduction of F-HNTs and F-HAs have successfully formed a micro-nano structure on the coating surface with superhydrophobicity performance. The icing temperature of the coating has decreased 2.3 °C compared with bare glass, and the ice adhesion strength has decreased 82%. According to the ice dynamic mechanics, the ice nucleation rate on the coating is significantly reduced, thus the halloysite microcapsule coating has good icephobic performance.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Flavorings differ between brands and tobacco products, potentially altering the sensory perceptions. This study aimed to examine discrepancies in flavor preference across various non-cigarette tobacco products among a national representative sample of US adult regular tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalence of flavor preference for various tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), traditional cigars, cigarillos/filtered cigars, hookah and snus/smokeless, was presented for 9,037 adult current and new former users of multiple flavored tobacco products. Within-subject flavor discrepancies were assessed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models considering the complex sampling design of the PATH study. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most regular users of a flavored tobacco products reported using one flavor category per product. Fruit flavors, followed by tobacco, were the most common flavor categories among ENDS (32% and 25%, respectively) and hookah users (44% and 36%, respectively). Tobacco flavor was the most common among regular users of traditional cigars (80%), cigarillos/filtered cigars (55%), and smokeless tobacco (79%). Polytobacco users of ENDS and traditional cigars had the largest discrepancy, where about 68-76%% used different flavor categories when switching products. Conversely, polytobacco users of traditional cigars and cigarillos/filtered cigars had the lowest discrepancy (23-25%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Many consumers of multiple tobacco products had different flavor preferences when switching between products. In the event of a partial or full flavor ban for ENDS, these findings raise questions about consumer loyalty to a particular tobacco product or a particular flavor category. Conflict of Interest Description: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Wheezing has been shown to be associated with use of cigarettes, and more recently, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study assessed the association of poly use of tobacco products with wheezing among a national representative sample of US adult current tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalences of self-reported wheezing and related respiratory symptoms for non-users compared to users of cigarettes, ENDS, cigars, and any combination of these products (poly use of tobacco products) were presented for 28,082 adults. The cross-sectional association of tobacco use with self-reported wheezing and other related respiratory symptoms was assessed using weighted multivariable and ordinal logistic regression with consideration of complex sampling design. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most adults who reported on wheezing symptoms did not currently use cigarettes, ENDS or cigars (79%), 15% used cigarettes, 3% used a combination of cigarettes, ENDS and cigars, 1% used ENDS, and 1% used cigars. Significantly higher odds of ever had wheezing or whistling in chest at any time in the past was observed among current cigarette (adjusted OR: 2.62, 95%CI: 2.35, 2.91), ENDS (1.49, 95%CI: 1.14, 1.95), and poly users (2.67, 95%CI: 2.26, 3.16) compared to non-users. No differences were seen for cigar use. Polytobacco use was associated with a higher odds of ever wheezing when compared to ENDS (1.61, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.17) and cigar use (2.87, 95%CI: 1.93, 4.26), but not cigarettes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wheezing is associated with the use of cigarettes, ENDS, or any combination of cigarette, ENDS and cigars likely due to the inhalation of noxious chemicals and gases found in the smoke of cigarettes and ENDS that are likely to increase the odds of experiencing wheezing. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
Firms can become less innovative following a sudden cash “inflow.” Specifically, multinational firms that were eligible to repatriate (and indeed repatriated) cash to the United States under the American Jobs Creation Act (AJCA) generate less valuable patents than otherwise similar firms. They also explore more. This effect only exists among firms in less competitive industries, firms with lower institutional ownership (IO), and firms with overconfident chief executive officers (CEOs); this effect is mainly driven by the reduction in the value of U.S.-originated patents. Our evidence suggests that, without appropriate governance, a cash windfall may lead managers to engage in riskier innovation strategy, which can destroy value.
To explore whether different polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) concentrations affect the results of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a prospective study was conducted for 194 couples undergoing 210 ICSI therapy cycles. These cycles were divided into three groups (10, 7 and 5% groups) using the corresponding concentration of PVP for sperm immobilization. The main outcome measures were analyzed. Results indicated that, with a decrease in PVP concentrations, all of the main outcome measures increased. In particular, the high-quality cleavage embryo rate in the 7% group was significantly lower than in the 5% group (P < 0.01), and the cleavage, high-quality cleavage embryo, and high-quality blastocyst rates in the 5% group were significantly higher than those in the 10% group (all P < 0.001). For high-/intermediate-quality semen, all of the main outcome measures were significantly increased with 5% PVP. For the poor-quality semen, only the high-quality cleavage embryo and high-quality blastocyst rates were significantly higher in the 5% group. Therefore, lowering PVP concentrations greatly promoted the development of embryos in ICSI cycles, with an optimal concentration of 5% for ICSI.
Introduction: Recently, volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) has been used for accurate sampling of a fixed peripheral blood volume (10 µL) on a volumetric swab, and long-term sample storage. The mPlex-Flu assay is a novel, high-throughput assay that simultaneously measures the concentration of antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins from multiple influenza virus strains with ≤5 µL of serum. Here we describe combining these two methods to measure multidimensional anti-influenza IgG activity in whole blood samples collected by a finger stick and VAMS, with correction for serum volume based on simultaneous hemoglobin measurement. Methods: We compared capillary blood samples obtained from a finger stick using a VAMS device with serum samples collected by traditional phlebotomy from 20 subjects, with the influenza antibody profiles measured by the mPlex-Flu assay. Results: We found that results with the two sampling methods were highly correlated within subjects and across all influenza strains (mean R2 = 0.9470). Adjustment for serum volume, based on hemaglobin measurement, was used to estimate serum volume of samples and improved the accuracy. IgG measurements were stable over 3 weeks when VAMS samples were stored at room temperature or transported using a variety of shipping methods. Additionally, when volunteers performed finger-stick VAMS at-home by themselves, the comparison results of anti-HA antibody concentrations were highly consistent with sampling performed by study personnel on-site (R2 = 0.9496). Conclusions: This novel approach can provide a simple, accurate, and low-cost means for monitoring the IgG anti-influenza HA antibody responses in large population studies and clinical trials.
Needles of Juniperus rigida are used in Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of brucellosis, dropsy, skin disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. This is the first study that reports anatomical structures of the J. rigida needles collected at different altitudes. The most common anatomical, phytochemical, and histochemical techniques and methods are used. The results show that anatomical structures and chemical composition change significantly at different altitudes. The main anatomical characters are significant xeromorphic structures (thick epidermis, hypodermis, and cuticle), a stomatal band, a developed vascular bundle, and a marginal resin duct. The xeromorphic structures become more pronounced with increasing altitude. The phytochemical and histochemical results demonstrate that the content of the main chemical compounds (phenols and terpenoids) basically increases at a higher elevation. Histochemical analysis localizes the phenols in epidermal cells, sponge tissue, endothelial layer cells, and stomatal bands, and the terpenoids in palisade tissue, sponge tissue, and the edge of the resin duct. This work reveals the relation between anatomy and chemistry in J. rigida needles, contributes to the quality control of its ethno-medicine, and provides the evidence to develop the commercial cultivation.
A company’s emphasis on corporate social responsibility (CSR) signals its concern with benefits for society, whereas a company’s emphasis on corporate ability (CA) signals its expertise in delivering good quality products. Product-harm crises often put companies at serious risk. Would a company’s prior emphasis on CSR versus CA mitigate the potential reputation damage of a product-harm crisis? In an experiment, we found that when a product-harm crisis occurred, having a CSR focus softened the public’s negative evaluation of the focal company, but this protective function of CSR was found only among people who had the lay theory that CSR and CA are compatible. The joint effect of CSR focus and the lay theory was mediated by the tendency to exonerate the focal company for the causal responsibility of the crisis.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The purpose of the present secondary data analysis was to examine the effect of moderate-severe disturbed sleep before the start of radiation therapy (RT) on subsequent RT-induced pain. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Analyses were performed on 676 RT-naïve breast cancer patients (mean age 58, 100% female) scheduled to receive RT from a previously completed nationwide, multicenter, phase II randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of oral curcumin on radiation dermatitis severity. The trial was conducted at 21 community oncology practices throughout the US affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center NCI’s Community Oncology Research Program (URCC NCORP) Research Base. Sleep disturbance was assessed using a single item question from the modified MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (SI) on a 0–10 scale, with higher scores indicating greater sleep disturbance. Total subjective pain as well as the subdomains of pain (sensory, affective, and perceived) were assessed by the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Pain at treatment site (pain-Tx) was also assessed using a single item question from the SI. These assessments were included for pre-RT (baseline) and post-RT. For the present analyses, patients were dichotomized into 2 groups: those who had moderate-severe disturbed sleep at baseline (score≥4 on the SI; n=101) Versus those who had mild or no disturbed sleep (control group; score=0–3 on the SI; n=575). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Prior to the start of RT, breast cancer patients with moderate-severe disturbed sleep at baseline were younger, less likely to have had lumpectomy or partial mastectomy while more likely to have had total mastectomy and chemotherapy, more likely to be on sleep, anti-anxiety/depression, and prescription pain medications, and more likely to suffer from depression or anxiety disorder than the control group (all p’s≤0.02). Spearman rank correlations showed that changes in sleep disturbance from baseline to post-RT were significantly correlated with concurrent changes in total pain (r=0.38; p<0.001), sensory pain (r=0.35; p<0.001), affective pain (r=0.21; p<0.001), perceived pain intensity (r=0.37; p<0.001), and pain-Tx (r=0.35; p<0.001). In total, 92% of patients with moderate-severe disturbed sleep at baseline reported post-RT total pain compared with 79% of patients in the control group (p=0.006). Generalized linear estimating equations, after controlling for baseline pain and other covariates (baseline fatigue and distress, age, sleep medications, anti-anxiety/depression medications, prescription pain medications, and depression or anxiety disorder), showed that patients with moderate-severe disturbed sleep at baseline had significantly higher mean values of post-RT total pain (by 39%; p=0.033), post-RT sensory pain (by 41%; p=0.046), and post-RT affective pain (by 55%; p=0.035) than the control group. Perceived pain intensity (p=0.066) and pain-Tx (p=0.086) at post-RT were not significantly different between the 2 groups. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These findings suggest that moderate-severe disturbed sleep prior to RT is an important predictor for worsening of pain at post-RT in breast cancer patients. There could be several plausible reasons for this. Sleep disturbance, such as sleep loss and sleep continuity disturbance, could result in impaired sleep related recovery and repair of tissue damage associated with cancer and its treatment; thus, resulting in the amplification of pain. Sleep disturbance may also reduce pain tolerance threshold through increased sensitization of the central nervous system. In addition, pain and sleep disturbance may share common neuroimmunological pathways. Sleep disturbance may modulate inflammation, which in turn may contribute to increased pain. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and whether interventions targeting sleep disturbance in early phase could be potential alternate approaches to reduce pain after RT.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To share lessons learned from implementing a health survey to a global sample of mTWs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: mTWs were paid $0.50 for taking a 15 minute survey to ascertain attitudes and intentions toward participating in genetic research. Two phases included: pilot survey targeting 7 global regions and a large-scale implementation in English in United States, India, and other countries and in Spanish in Spanish speaking countries. Administrative and descriptive information were collected and analyzed by region/country including: completions by location, demographics, time to complete, and survey satisfaction. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There are 4 key lessons: (1) MTurk is fast. The US sample (n=505) accrual took <2 days and the Indian sample (n=505) took 11 days, while the response from other countries (n=118) generally exceeded 30 days. (2) Using Amazon country specification was the best way to ensure responses from specific countries and regions. (3) Demographic differences exist in mTWs between countries. For example, US mTWs were significantly more likely female (60.1%) compared with India (30.2%) and other countries (34.2%). (4) mTWs found the survey understandable/acceptable. mTWs reported high understandability and acceptability of the survey, which did not vary significantly across countries or by language. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: mTurk provides an efficient platform for survey research from diverse US and Indian samples. In other countries and in Spanish, the mTurk mechanism yielded a smaller sample more slowly but was still effective.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Due to scope and breadth of research activity and infrastructure capacities at academic medical centers, the discipline of Biomedical Informatics is often deployed in a decentralized manner through geographically dispersed and unrelated organizational units. As a result, without a conscious strategy, an academic medical center risks redundant effort and gaps in resources, and perhaps poor coordination. A mechanism to bring together disparate organizational entities to identify, discuss, and negotiate Informatics-related concerns may produce a better institutional research environment. The University of Rochester (UR) has implemented such a strategy of Informatics governance, adapting tactics from team science, diplomacy, and deliberative engagement. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Based on current needs and institutional Informatics priorities, the UR’s Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) established 6 Informatics “clusters” in distinct but deliberately overlapping focal areas: (1) Data—capture, management, and analysis of all types of data for research. (2) Analytics—quantitative research across the spectrum of translational research. (3) Infrastructure—technical and computing infrastructure to support informatics. (4) Electronic health records (EHR)—(i) features within the EHR explicitly designed to address the needs of research; (ii) accessing and procuring EHR data for research. (5) Population health—Informatics design and systems expertise relevant to population health research (a key CTSI focus area). (6) Education—development, deployment, and assessment of Informatics learning opportunities for learners at all levels. Each cluster facilitates access to expertise and resources around the institution, promotes collaboration, identifies redundancy, and serves as a forum to strategize regarding institutional needs related to Biomedical Informatics. A CTSI faculty or staff member leads each cluster. To maximize effectiveness of the cluster, other members are decision-makers in the organizations they represent, or serve in a critical staff function. Clusters meet in person on a quarterly basis with more frequent electronic interaction. The clusters share documents via Box, a secure online file sharing app. The cluster coordinators meet as a group on a biweekly basis to monitor progress and make plans. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There were 45 different people representing 46 distinct centers, departments or offices, and 2 outside agencies agreed to participate in the clusters. In total, 20 people represented a single organizational unit; 15 represented 2 units; 8 represented 3 units, and 2 represented 4 units. The richness and complexity of these organizational linkages illustrates the decentralized nature of Informatics at the institution and the promise of the cluster approach. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Adapting to a decentralized Informatics environment, the CTSI established clusters that recognize and respect autonomy and capacity of a wide range of units throughout the university, creating a collaborative atmosphere for steering and implementing an overall Informatics vision. As Informatics capacity rapidly expands throughout growing biomedical research institutions without a centralized Informatics hub, this distributed, deliberative approach could offer an effective governance solution that promotes cooperation. In this model, the CTSI provides the leadership and staffing necessary to ensure progress at the institutional level around Informatics and creates a venue for communication and coordination on Informatics-related topics.
The assessment and calibration of representational bias in modern soil phytolith assemblages provide the basis for improving interpretation of fossil phytolith assemblages. We studied soil phytolith representation by comparing phytoliths from living plant communities with those from paired surface soils, representing 39 plant communities in Northeast China. Together with the use of representation indices, the 34 and 30 soil morphotypes observed in forest and grassland samples, respectively, were both classified into the following four groups: “Associated types” were similarly represented in soils and in the corresponding species inventory data; “Over-represented types” and “Under-represented types” were respectively over- and under-represented in soils compared to the inventory data; and, in the case of “Special types,” the relationship with the parent plants was unclear. In addition, the diagnostic types exhibited different degrees of representation, while the most common morphotypes were equally represented between grassland samples and forest samples. On this basis, a comparison between the original and corrected soil phytolith indices of the additional 29 soil samples was conducted. The soil phytoliths frequencies corrected by R-values differed between plots with differing plant compositions, and were moderately consistent with actual plant richness in the plot inventory data. We therefore confirmed that R-values are a promising means of correcting soil phytoliths for representational bias in temperate regions. The corrected soil phytoliths can be used to reliably reflect vegetation variability. Overall, our study provides an improved understanding of soil phytolith representation and offers a potential method for improving the accuracy of paleovegetation reconstruction.
Conservation plans for waterbirds in periodically flooded wetlands should be based on a deep understanding of the relationship between habitat availability and the hydrological regime. Using waterbird surveys and remotely sensed images, we investigated how habitat availability for wintering waterbirds was regulated by seasonal water level fluctuation at Shengjin Lake in the lower Yangtze River floodplain, which is an important wintering area along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. We recorded 52 waterbird species during three field surveys, and categorised them into four groups based on their foraging preferences: grassland, mudflats, shallow water, or deep water. Habitat availability for the four groups was significantly influenced by fluctuations in water level. Habitat for deep-water feeders dominated the lake throughout the year, despite contracting during the wintering season. Water recession during winter exposed more diverse riparian habitats that showed high spatial heterogeneity at the landscape level, with the Upper Lake providing the most suitable habitats for the most diverse and abundant waterbirds. It is worth noting that the water level was regulated highly for aquaculture during the early wintering period, impeding access to suitable habitats for the early-arriving waterbirds that foraged in the riparian mudflats and grassland. Furthermore, rapid water recession from the opening of a sluice gate allowed the exposed moist mudflats to dry up quickly, reducing its suitability for shorebirds and cranes. For effective wintering waterbird conservation in the ephemeral lacustrine wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain, we suggest stepwise water recession plans, together with the recovery of the aquatic vegetation community and reduction in high-density aquaculture, to synchronise the exposure of foraging habitats with the migration phenology of different waterbird species.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of the low-protein diets (LPD) supplemented with ketoacids (LPD+KA) in KKAy mice, an early type 2 DN model. KKAy mice were treated with normal protein diet (NPD), LPD or LPD+KA from 12 to 24 weeks of age. A period of 12-week treatment with LPD significantly reduced albuminuria as compared with that observed after NPD treatment. Treatment with LPD+KA further reduced albuminuria as compared with that observed with LPD treatment alone. Moreover, LPD treatment reduced mesangial expansion, thickness of glomerular basement membrane and the severity of the podocyte foot process effacement in KKAy mice; these effects were more pronounced in KKAy mice treated with LPD+KA. Both LPD and LPD+KA treatments slightly reduced total body weight, but had no significant effect on kidney weight and blood glucose concentrations when compared with NPD-treated KKAy mice. LPD treatment slightly attenuated oxidative stress in kidneys as compared with that observed in NPD-treated KKAy mice; however, LPD+KA treatment remarkably ameliorated oxidative stress in diabetic kidneys as shown by decreased malondialdehyde concentrations, protein carbonylation, nitrotyrosine expression and increased superoxide dismutase expression. Nutritional therapy using LPD+KA confers additional renal benefits as compared with those of LPD treatment alone in early type 2 DN through inhibition of oxidative stress.
The exact mechanism of ethanol's effects on glucose tolerance has not been well determined. The present study focuses for the first time on hypoxia and low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue (AT). In the in vivo experiments, twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into control and ethanol feeding groups. Ethanol-treated rats received edible ethanol once a day at a total dosage of 5 g/kg per d, and the controls received distilled water. Ethanol volumes were adjusted every week. At the end of 8 weeks, we carried out an oral glucose tolerance test. Blood and AT were collected for measuring hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), GLUT1, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the in vitro experiments, differentiated OP9 adipocytes were incubated with 100 mm of ethanol for 48 h; the media and cells were then collected for measuring HIF-1α, GLUT1, TNF-α and IL-6. The results showed that long-term ethanol consumption impaired glucose tolerance in rats. Ethanol consumption had little influence on body weight, but both epididymal and perirenal AT were markedly enlarged in the ethanol-treated rats as compared to the controls. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) had accumulated, and the protein levels of HIF-1α and GLUT1, the indicators of hypoxia in rat epididymal AT and OP9 adipocytes, were elevated. Secondary to the AT hypoxia, the levels of inflammation-related adipokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, leptin and VEGF, were increased. Based on these findings, we conclude that VAT hypoxia and low-grade inflammation might be a new mechanism in the treatment of ethanol-related diabetes.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (5-HT2A) participates in diverse psychiatric disorders by regulating the activity of serotonin. Some previous studies have also suggested that the receptor is involved in cognitive abilities of disease groups. We hypothesize that some functional genetic variants in 5-HT2A have certain specific influences on cognitive abilities in a normal population.
To confirm this hypothesis, two polymorphisms (rs6313 and rs4941573) in 5-HT2A were selected, and a population-based study was performed in a young healthy Chinese Han cohort.
The results indicated that the rs6313 and rs4941573 were associated with touching blocks and mental rotation-3D error ratio in males, and the rs4941573 was associated with visuo-spatial working memory in the whole cohort.
All the findings suggest that 5-HT2A participates in human spatial cognitive abilities and spatial working memory.
This study examined correlates of caregiving at the end of life provided by adult children to their older parents and the role of gender of adult children in family caregiving in rural China. Data came from five waves of the Longitudinal Study of Rural Elder’s Well-Being in Anhui Province, China, over 12 years and from a post-mortality survey. Hierarchical linear modeling was used. Findings demonstrated that the birth order of adult children, prior geographic distance, and prior intergenerational support exchange were significantly associated with family caregiving at the end of life. Eldest children, compared to other siblings, provided the most end-of-life caregiving to their parents. Children cohabitating with older parents before death provided the most caregiving, compared to other siblings. Adult children who had previously exchanged instrumental support with older parents before death, especially sons, tended to provide the most caregiving, compared with that by others, at end of life.