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We fabricated highly transparent and high haze ZnO:Al film for front TCO of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells. We have sputtered ZnO:Al film of 1.3 μm on the thin seed layer of about 60nm which was previously sputtered on the glass substrate by using 4% dilution of oxygen to argon gas. The ZnO:Al film grown on the seed layer had much higher crystalline phase than one without any seed layer. Our bi-layer ZnO:Al film showed low resistivity of 2.66×10-4 Ω•cm and sheet resistance of 2.08 Ω/⇐ while conventional ZnO:Al film showed resistivity of 3.24×10-4 Ω•cm and sheet resistance of 2.46 Ω/⇐. After surface texturing by 0.5% HCl wet-chemical etching, the transmittance of ZnO:Al film was increased from 83.7% to 88.1% at wavelength of 550nm through the seed layer. Also the transmittance at 800nm was increased from 82.3% to 88.9%. Especially, haze values of the ZnO:Al film were drastically increased from 58.7% to 90.6% at wavelength of 550nm by employing the seed layer. Also haze values at 800nm were increased from 22.1% to 68.1%. It is expected that the seed layer method to improve the quality of ZnO:Al film will contribute to an increase of solar cell efficiency due to the high capability of light trapping and low electrical resistivity.
The ultrafine titanium carbonitride particles (TiC0.5N0.5) with 100 nm in mean size was successfully synthesized by nitridation treatment at ordinary temperatures, 1373∼1473 K of the nanostructured half-stoichiometric titanium carbide (TiC0.5) particles, which were produced by the magnesium reduction of gaseous TiCl4+1/4C2Cl4. In addition, the nitrogen stability for the produced titanium carbonitride particles at various temperatures and vacuum conditions was investigated experimentally and compared with values calculated by an ideal solution model.
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