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Yarn-type supercapacitors should have high energy density in small given spaces, and the one attempt among many is to comprise the electrodes asymmetrically. However, the low capacitance of conventional materials causes the widened operating voltage useless. In this study, we have utilized a novel material MXene with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to make highly loaded MXene/CNT yarn electrodes, which exhibited a remarkable areal capacitance. With MnO2/CNT biscrolled cathode and PVA/LiCl gel electrolyte, the plied asymmetric yarn supercapacitor had energy density of 100 µWh/cm2. The yarn supercapacitor could operate under mechanical deformations without performance degradation.
Cronobacter sakazakii is a life-threatening foodborne pathogen found in powdered infant formula and dairy products. Kefir is a dairy probiotic product and its antimicrobial activity against C. sakazakii was reported in our previous study. To identify key microorganisms that mediate growth suppression, we tested the antimicrobial activity of culture supernatants derived from lactic acid bacteria found in kefir. Lactobacillus kefiri DH5, L. kefiranofaciens DH101, and Bifidobacterium longum 720 (a commercial probiotic strain that served as a positive control) all significantly inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii ATCC 29544, delaying the initiation of exponential growth from 3 to 9 h in the nutrient broth. Among them, L. kefiri DH5 exerted the strongest antimicrobial effects against C. sakazakii, showing bactericidal effect at the addition of 300 µl of supernatant in 1 ml of nutrient broth. Interestingly, the supernatant of L. kefiri DH5 has higher pH and lower titrable acidity than that of L. kefiranofaciens DH101, suggesting metabolites produced by heterofermentation of L. kefiri acted more effectively to antagonise the growth of C. sakazakii. In addition, the supernatant of L. kefiri DH5 induced the leakage of cytoplasmic materials including nucleic acid and proteins, suggesting L. kefiri DH5 disrupted the cellular membrane integrity of C. sakazakii. Considering that pH neutralisation reduced the L. kefiri-dependent growth suppression, it is inferred that this activity is mainly due to organic acids produced during the fermentation process.
Spirituality is what gives people meaning and purpose in life, and it has been recognized as a critical factor in patients’ well-being, particularly at the ends of their lives. Studies have demonstrated relationships between spirituality and patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life and mental health. Although a number of studies have suggested that spiritual belief can be associated with mortality, the results are inconsistent. We aimed to determine whether spirituality was related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea.
For this multicenter study, we recruited adult advanced cancer inpatients who had been admitted to seven palliative care units with estimated survival of <3 months. We measured spirituality at admission using the Korean version of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-sp), which comprises two subscales: meaning/peace and faith. We calculated a Kaplan-Meier curve for spirituality, dichotomized at the predefined cutoffs and medians for the total scale and each of the two subscales, and performed univariate regression with a Cox proportional hazard model.
We enrolled a total of 204 adults (mean age: 64.5 ± 13.0; 48.5% female) in the study. The most common primary cancer diagnoses were lung (21.6%), colorectal (18.6%), and liver/biliary tract (13.0%). Median survival was 19.5 days (95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 23.5, 30.6). Total FACIT-sp score was not related to survival time (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.981, CI95% = 0.957, 1.007), and neither were the scores for its two subscales, meaning/peace (HR = 0.969, CI95% = 0.932, 1.008) and faith (HR = 0.981, CI95% = 0.938, 1.026).
Significance of results
Spirituality was not related to survival in advanced cancer inpatients in Korea. Plausible mechanisms merit further investigation.
This paper examines the relationships of income with education and health using heterogeneous panel cointegration techniques to account for the potential cross-country heterogeneity in the effects of education and health. Our main results are: (i) education and health are, on average, income-enhancing; (ii) for different schooling levels, although primary education lowers income, both secondary and tertiary education raise income with larger impacts for the former than the latter, on average; (iii) there is considerable heterogeneity in the effects of education and health on income across countries; and (iv) the effect of education (health) on income tends to be greater (smaller) in countries with higher levels of development, greater (less) trade openness, less abundant natural resources, less corruption, higher levels of democracy, and a more homogeneous society.
One of the limitations of Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) is that accuracy decreases as the distance between the user and a base station increases. We have developed a new DGPS positioning strategy that is less affected by baseline length and enables better accuracy. We found correlations between satellite elevation angle and Pseudo-Range Correction (PRC) through extensive tests. As a result, better PRC values were obtained by considering differences in satellite elevation angles at a reference site and the user location. We tested the model for a variety of baseline lengths greater than 250 km, and the positioning accuracy improved by 29–66% compared with traditional DGPS based on a single reference station. Positioning accuracies comparable to those of multi-reference DGPS were achieved in some cases.
Recent empirical work on globalization and inflation analyzes multicountry data sets in panel and/or cross-section frameworks and reaches inconclusive results. This paper highlights their shortcomings and reexamines the issue utilizing heterogeneous panel cointegration techniques that allow for cross-section heterogeneity and dependence. It finds that in a sample of developing countries globalization of both trade and finance, on the average, exerts a significant and positive effect on inflation, whereas in a sample of developed countries there is, on the average, no significant impact of openness. Neither type of openness disciplines inflationary policy. Despite this, there are large variations in the effect across countries, due possibly to differences in the quality of political institutions, central bank independence, the exchange-rate regimes, financial development, and/or legal traditions.
Social support programs for dementia caregivers were widely used in order to reduce care burden. We investigated which types of social supports can reduce psychological and non-psychological burdens of dementia caregivers, and explored the mechanism of those social supports.
We evaluated 731 community-dwelling dementia patients and their caregivers from the National Survey of Dementia Care in South Korea. We investigated the five types of social supports (emotional support, informational support, tangible support, positive social interaction, affectionate support) using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey in each caregiver. The mechanisms of specific types of social support on psychological/non-psychological burden were examined using path analysis.
Positive social interaction and affectionate support reduced psychological burden via direct and indirect paths. Tangible support reduced the non-psychological burden via direct and indirect paths. Informational support and emotional support were not helpful for reducing psychological or non-psychological burden. A maximum of 20% of psychological burden could be relieved by positive social interaction and 10.3% of that could be reduced by affectionate support. Tangible support was associated with a 15.1% maximal improvement in non-psychological burden.
In order to reduce caregiver burden in dementia effectively, psychosocial interventions should be tailored to target type of caregiver burden.
Objective: We showed previously that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) levels are significantly elevated in the hippocampi of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the exact cause of this elevation and its function are unknown. Recent animal studies have suggested a mechanism involving the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) NR2B–GSK-3β loop.
Methods: To investigate the existence of an NR2B–GSK-3β loop in the hippocampi of patients with MDD, we examined the expression of NR2B. We also attempted to identify markers that correlate with NR2B levels in the hippocampus, using the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium Integrative Database (SNCID). The SNCID is a web-based tool used to integrate Stanley Medical Research Institute (SMRI) data sets.
Results: We found that hippocampal levels of NR2B and DLGAP1 mRNA were higher in the MDD group (n = 8) than in unaffected controls (n = 12) (p < 0.05). NR2B expression levels were correlated with the expression levels of NR2A, NR1, DLGAP1, GSK-3β and nitric oxide synthase 1, as well as with the number of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus in all subjects in the SNC (n = 42, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: The results of our study show the possible involvement of excessive activation of the NR2B–GSK-3β loop in the overexpression of GSK-3β in the hippocampi of patients with MDD.
This paper studies the long- and short-run relationships between inflation and financial development. Applying the Pooled Mean Group estimator of Pesaran, Shin, and Smith (1999, Journal of the American Statistical Association 94, 621–634) to unbalanced panel data for 87 countries over the period 1960–2005, we find that a negative long-run relationship between inflation and financial development coexists with a positive short-run relationship. However, when the data are split into different income or inflation groups, these results can be observed only in low-income or low-inflation economies.
To compare the epidemiology and genetic relatedness of Candida tropicalis isolates causing bloodstream infection (BSI) in two hospitals.
Two tertiary-care hospitals in Korea.
A retrospective molecular epidemiologic analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed with 49 C. tropicalis isolates from sporadic cases of BSI. The isolates were collected from 27 patients at Chonnam National University Hospital (CUH) during a 6-year period and 22 patients at Asan Medical Center (AMC) during a 2-year period.
Based on the PFGE patterns, the average similarity value (SAB) for the 27 isolates from CUH was 0.84 ± 0.08, which was significantly higher than that for the 22 isolates from AMC (0.78 ± 0.06; P < .001). Of the 49 strains from patients at the 2 hospitals, 9 isolates were placed into 3 subtypes with SAB values of 1.0, which indicated that they were identical. All 9 of these strains were isolated from CUH patients, and each type strain was isolated sporadically during a period ranging from 4 months to 3 years. On comparison of the clinical characteristics of the patients of the 2 hospitals, the CUH strains were isolated more frequently from non-neutropenic patients and patients with central venous catheter–related fungemia; cases from CUH had a better outcome than those from AMC (P < .05).
These data show that the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of C. tropicalis fungemia may differ markedly among hospitals and that some cases of C. tropicalis fungemia may be caused by endemic strains within a hospital.
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