The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) certifies a variety of standard reference materials (SRM) to address specific aspects of instrument performance for divergent beam diffractometers. This paper describes SRM 640d, the fifth generation of this powder diffraction SRM, which is certified with respect to the lattice parameter. It consists of approximately 7.5 g silicon powder specially prepared to produce strain-free particles in a size range between 1 and 10 μm to eliminate size-broadening effects. It is typically used for calibrating powder diffractometers for the line position and line shape. A NIST built diffractometer, incorporating many advanced design features, was used to certify the lattice parameter of the silicon powder measured at 22.5 °C. Both type A, statistical, and type B, systematic, errors have been assigned to yield a certified value for the lattice parameter of a=0.543 159±0.000 020 nm.