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If description facilitates the effect of ante oculos ponere, one can also state (echoing Cicero) that direct speech confers upon John the power ad aures ponere, allowing him simultaneously to appear as a mere spectator and aural witness to what he has heard. This explains the recurrent use of the lexeme ????sa throughout the entire account. As we know, direct speech facilitates the momentary concealment of the narrator. John deftly uses this device to shift the protagonist role to the voices that he hears. To recreate the dramatic action, the author of the book of Revelation borrows various techniques from tragedy: the chorus; a frequent recourse to deixis; the use of dialogue to indicate movement; and messenger speeches. As though these theatrical devices were not sufficient to express what the narrator heard, the author also makes use of the dramatized epistolary form. In addition, we must remember that John also witnessed an aural environment replete with celestial chanting, the sound of trumpets, etc. Through language, the audience is immersed in the revelation’s aural context. Finally, John is aware that his text will be read aloud; this explains the use of the oral style.
Throughout this book, I have disassembled the book of Revelation line by line in search of the principles that underlie its organization. The Epilogue is the moment to reassemble it and verify the model of reading. The result is positive, and it is concluded that the narrative form of Rev 1.9–22.16 is analogous to the short story form as it has developed since the nineteenth century. The principal argument put forward in this book is that one of the singular characteristics of this form is its emphasis on the reader or listener. Revelation also coincides with the short story form in that it features a wide range of characters whose adventures are woven into a plot charged with successive waves of tension and relief that lead eventually to a happy ending. Lastly, there are similarities in the techniques employed: flexibility in the use of space–time coordinates and the intensive use of descriptive adjectives that simultaneously sway the emotions of the reader/listener and provide clues as to the goodness or wickedness of the characters portrayed.
In this chapter, it is shown that the textual heterogeneity of the book of Revelation is only on the surface. To the contrary, it has a clear structure, designed to provide unity to the whole: a prologue in which the author provides the guidelines to the reader (1. 1–3); an introductory liturgical dialogue (1. 4–8); an account of the things John saw and heard during his vision (1.9–22.16); and a closing liturgical dialogue (22.17–21). After this, the type of account constituted by Rev 1.9–2.16 is examined, through analysis of previous proposals. We conclude that Rev 1.9–2.16 is a special narrative, with the following characteristics: the use of a homodiegetic narrator (allowing John to simultaneously appear as a witness to the story and as one of its characters, and thus to highlight the veracity of the story he tells); a flexibility in the use of space–time coordinates; the variety of characters that participate in the plot; the fact that the plot has a happy ending; etc. Finally, I explore the author’s purpose of showcasing the truthfulness of the narrative.
This chapter is dedicated to showing the technique used by John to portray himself as an eyewitness: description. This description, in the classical rhetorical tradition of ante oculos ponere, engages the audience in the narrative by giving them the opportunity to visualize what John himself saw. For example, descriptions introduced by the phrase ?a? e?d?? are rendered as though they formed part of a transcription of a vision made at the very moment it occurred. This is why they appear in the text ex abrupto, marked only by the introductory sign ?a? e?d??, a device habitually used to signal the reader/listener that a given vision has occurred unexpectedly. The ?a? e?d?? structure mimics the mechanics of sight. However, the descriptive forms employed in the book of Revelation are not limited to the use of this ?a? e?d?? pattern. On the contrary, throughout the text John employs six other kinds of descriptions: 1) ????sa ?a? e?d?? descriptions, or ecphrasis; 2) e?d??-????? descriptions; 3) t? p???e??µe?a descriptions; 4) ?a? e?d?? ???e??? descriptions; 5) ?? t? d????se? descriptions; 6) t?p?? or t?p???af?a descriptions.
After a short status quaestionis laying out the main perspectives from which the book of Revelation has been studied, we show how the study of the reading guidelines laid out in the Introduction have hitherto been overlooked. We propose the methodology to follow in order to discover them. According to the reading theory, every reader creates a ‘model’ through which the sense is grasped and the text interpreted. The elaboration of this model involves a process of ‘disassembling the mechanism without ruining it; disassembling it until the keys to its organisation are found’, according to Alonso Schökel. This process is what we will examine in the following chapters.
The Book of Revelation is one of the most cryptic books of the Bible and one that raises many scholarly questions. What is its literary genre? Why is it considered to be both a narrative and a drama? Why does John disregard time-space coordinates? Why does the audience have such an important role in the text? What literary guidelines has the author designed to facilitate the reading of the book? Applying the methods of literary theory to her study, Lourdes Garcia-Urena argues that John wrote Revelation as a book to be read aloud in a liturgical context. In her reading, John chose a literary form, similar to the short story, that allows him to use time-space coordinates flexibly, to dramatize the text, and to take his time in describing his visions. Through these techniques the audience re-lives and is made part of the visual and auditory experience every time the book is read.
Continuous and precise space-based photometry has made it possible to measure the orbital frequency modulation of pulsating stars in binary systems with extremely high precision over long time spans. We present the phase modulation (PM) method for finding binaries among pulsating stars. We demonstrate how the orbital elements of a pulsating binary star can be obtained analytically from photometry alone, without spectroscopic radial velocity measurement. Frequency modulation (FM) caused by binary orbital motion also manifests itself in the Fourier transform, as a multiplet with equal spacing of the orbital frequency. The orbital parameters can also be extracted by analysing the amplitudes and phases of the peaks in these multiplets. We derive analytically the theoretical relations between the multiplet properties and the orbital parameters, and present a method for determining these parameters, including the eccentricity and the argument of periapsis. This, too, is achievable with the photometry alone, without spectroscopic radial velocity measurements. We apply these two methods to Kepler mission data and demonstrate that the results are in good agreement with each other. These methods are used to search for invisible binary companions, including planets and invisible massive objects such as neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes.
The challenges associated with meeting 20nm technology requirements for better Cu CMP process uniformity and lower defectivity have been studied. Required improvements in uniformity were obtained through platen process optimization along with evaluation & selection of specific Cu slurries and pads and their performance reported. The principal factors influencing defect formation, including Cu barrier metallurgy, interconnect pattern density and process queue times were studied. Specific new post CMP clean chemistries were evaluated to assess their capability to suppress defect formation and their performance reported. The trade off between uniformity and defect suppression as a function slurry, pad and post Cu CMP clean chemistry is described.
Pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) yields a salt waste of LiCI-KCI that contains approximately 6 wt% fission products, primarily as CsCI and SrCl2. Past work has shown that zeolite A will preferentially sorb cesium and strontium and will encapsulate the salt waste in a leach-resistant, radiation-resistant aluminosilicate matrix. However, a method is still needed to convert the salt-occluded zeolite powders into a monolith suitable for geologic disposal. We are thus investigating a method that forms bonded zeolite by hot pressing a mixture of glass frit and sait-occluded zeolite powders at 990 K (717°C) and 28 MPa. The leach resistance of the bonded zeolite was measured in static leach tests run for 28 days in 363 K (90°C) deionized water. Normalized release rates of all elements in the bonded zeolite were low, <1 g/m2d. Thus, the bonded zeolite may be a suitable waste form for IFR salt waste.
The phonon spectra of pristine fullerene, superconducting K3C60 and saturation-doped Rb6C60 measured by inelastic neutron scatteringin the energy range 2.5 - 200 meV at low temperatures reveal substantial broadening of five-fold degenerate Hg intramolecular vibrational modes both in the low-energy radial and the high-energy tangential part of the spectrum. This provides strong evidence for a traditional phonon-mediated mechanism of superconductivity in the fullerides but with an electron-phonon coupling strength distributed over a wide range of energies (33-195 meV) as a result of the finite curvature of the fullerene spherical cage.