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This article presents results of a multi-sensor drone survey at an ancestral Wichita archaeological site in southeastern Kansas, originally recorded in the 1930s and believed by some scholars to be the location of historical “Etzanoa,” a major settlement reportedly encountered by Spanish conquistador Juan de Oñate in 1601. We used high-resolution, drone-acquired thermal and multispectral (color and near-infrared) imagery, alongside publicly available lidar data and satellite imagery, to prospect for archaeological features across a relatively undisturbed 18 ha area of the site. Results reveal a feature that is best interpreted as the remains of a large, circular earthwork, similar to so-called council circles documented at five other contemporary sites of the Great Bend aspect cultural assemblage. We also located several features that may be remains of house basins, the size and configuration of which conform with historical evidence. These findings point to major investment in the construction of large-scale ritual, elite, or defensive structures, lending support to the interpretation of the cluster of Great Bend aspect sites in the lower Walnut River as a single, sprawling population center, as well as demonstrating the potential for thermal and multispectral surveys to reveal archaeological landscape features in the Great Plains and beyond.
In times of labour market insecurity and retrenchment of state support, low income families rely on friends and relatives as a safety net. This article explores the enhanced role of this ‘third source of welfare’ in light of these developments. It draws on qualitative longitudinal research to demonstrate how families’ situations fluctuate over two years and the importance of social support networks in hard times and periods of crisis. The research illustrates how social support is not necessarily a stable structure that families facing insecurity can fall back on, but rather a variable resource, and fluid over time, as those who provide such support experience changing capabilities and needs. A policy challenge is to help reinforce and not undermine the conditions that enable valuable social support to be offered and sustained, while ensuring sufficient reliable state support to avoid families having no choice but to depend on this potentially fragile resource as a safety net.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) 16:0/20:4 homolog in uncoagulated, human blood samples taken from 18 participants in a clinical laboratory setting after consumption of 2 doses of ethanol. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Male and female participants received either 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg oral doses of ethanol during a 15-minute period. Blood samples were collected before and throughout 6 hours immediately after alcohol administration, then after 2, 4, 7, 11, and 14 days of administration day. PEth 16:0/20:4 levels were quantified by liquid mass spectrometry. Breath ethanol concentrations were measure concurrently with each blood collection during the administration day, as well as transdermal ethanol concentrations monitored constantly before, during and after ethanol administration day. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: (1) Single doses of 0.4 and 0.8 g ethanol/kg produced proportional increases in BrAC and PEth 16:0/20:4 levels; (2) the increase of Peth 16:0/20:4 from base line to Cmax was less than either PEth 16:0/18:1 or PEth 16:0/18:2 during the 6-hour period after ethanol administration; (3) the mean rate of formation of PEth 16:0/20:4 was lower than those of the other 2 homologs; (4) the mean half-life of PEth 16:0/20:4 was 2.18 days, which was shorter than that of either PEth 16:0/18:1 and PEth 16:0/18:2, which were 6.80 and 6.62, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The results of this study further confirm that PEth homologs are a sensitive biomarker for ethanol consumption. The measurement of three PEth homologs appears to provide additional information about the level and time frame of drinking.
Methods were developed and tested for mapping the distribution of Scotch broom, an invasive shrub species expanding its range and disrupting native species and habitats in several parts of the world. During spring, the Scotch broom produces yellow flowers. Landsat imagery during the flower bloom period and during summer was acquired for several years for a study area on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Ground-based reflectance measurements plus statistical separability tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness for identifying Scotch broom with Landsat spectral bands, band ratios, vegetation indices, and combinations of bloom and nonbloom imagery. Maximum likelihood classifications of three Scotch broom density classes (dense, ≥ 75% cover; moderate, 25 to 75%; low, 10 to 25%) and other land covers were run with various image and band sets and tested against independent reference sites. Accuracies of classifications using the better band combinations for moderate and dense Scotch broom patches combined were on the order of 80%, with unreliable results for sites of low Scotch broom density. Scotch broom patches less than 0.5 ha were often missed. Some commission error occurred (areas erroneously classified as Scotch broom). Suggested improvements are the use of time series of classifications over multiple years, incorporating knowledge of Scotch broom spread mechanisms or temperature and elevation limitations, and use of higher resolution satellites if the expense warrants it. Despite some limitations, a satellite-based remote sensing approach may be useful for aspects of Scotch broom management.
The triple themes of textile, text, and intertext, three powerful and evocative subjects within both Anglo-Saxon studies and Old English literature itself, run through the essays collected here. Chapters evoke the semantic complexities of textile references and images drawn from the Bayeux Tapestry, examine parallels in word-woven poetics, riddling texts, and interwoven homiletic and historical prose, and identify iconographical textures in medieval art. The volume thus considers the images and creative strategies of textiles, texts, and intertexts, generating a complex and fascinating view ofthe material culture and metaphorical landscape of the Anglo-Saxon peoples. It is therefore a particularly fitting tribute to Professor Gale R. Owen-Crocker, whose career and lengthy list of scholarly works have centred on her interests in the meaning and cultural importance of textiles, manuscripts and text, and intertextual relationships between text and textile.
Dr Maren Clegg Hyer is Associate Professor and Graduate Coordinator in the Department of English at Valdosta State University.; Jill Frederick is Professor of English at Minnesota State University Moorhead.
Contributors: Marilina Cesario, Elizabeth Coatsworth, Martin Foys, Jill Frederick, Joyce Hill, Maren Clegg Hyer, Catherine E. Karkov, Christina Lee, Michael Lewis, Robin Netherton, Carol Neuman de Vegvar, Donald Scragg, Louise Sylvester, Paul Szarmach, Elaine Treharne.
Hydrogen terminated diamond field effect transistors (FET) of 50nm gate length have been fabricated, their DC operation characterised and their physical and chemical structure inspected by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). DC characterisation of devices demonstrated pinch-off of the source-drain current can be maintained by the 50nm gate under low bias conditions. At larger bias, off-state output conductance increases, demonstrating most likely the onset of short-channel effects at this reduced gate length.