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To identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (KPC) colonization among long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH) patients.
Multicenter, matched case-control study.
Four LTACHs in Chicago, Illinois.
Each case patient included in this study had a KPC-negative rectal surveillance culture on admission followed by a KPC-positive surveillance culture later in the hospital stay. Each matched control patient had a KPC-negative rectal surveillance culture on admission and no KPC isolated during the hospital stay.
From June 2012 to June 2013, 2,575 patients were admitted to 4 LTACHs; 217 of 2,144 KPC-negative patients (10.1%) acquired KPC. In total, 100 of these patients were selected at random and matched to 100 controls by LTACH facility, admission date, and censored length of stay. Acquisitions occurred a median of 16.5 days after admission. On multivariate analysis, we found that exposure to higher colonization pressure (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.04; P=.002), exposure to a carbapenem (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.06–4.77; P=.04), and higher Charlson comorbidity index (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01–1.29; P=.04) were independent risk factors for KPC acquisition; the odds of KPC acquisition increased by 2% for each 1% increase in colonization pressure.
Higher colonization pressure, exposure to carbapenems, and a higher Charlson comorbidity index independently increased the odds of KPC acquisition among LTACH patients. Reducing colonization pressure (through separation of KPC-positive patients from KPC-negative patients using strict cohorts or private rooms) and reducing carbapenem exposure may prevent KPC cross transmission in this high-risk patient population.
Prevalence of blaKPC-encoding Enterobacteriaceae (KPC) in Chicago long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs) rose rapidly after the first recognition in 2007. We studied the epidemiology and transmission capacity of KPC in LTACHs and the effect of patient cohorting.
Data were available from 4 Chicago LTACHs from June 2012 to June 2013 during a period of bundled interventions. These consisted of screening for KPC rectal carriage, daily chlorhexidine bathing, medical staff education, and 3 cohort strategies: a pure cohort (all KPC-positive patients on 1 floor), single rooms for KPC-positive patients, and a mixed cohort (all KPC-positive patients on 1 floor, supplemented with KPC-negative patients). A data-augmented Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method was used to model the transmission process.
Average prevalence of KPC colonization was 29.3%. On admission, 18% of patients were colonized; the sensitivity of the screening process was 81%. The per admission reproduction number was 0.40. The number of acquisitions per 1,000 patient days was lowest in LTACHs with a pure cohort ward or single rooms for colonized patients compared with mixed-cohort wards, but 95% credible intervals overlapped.
Prevalence of KPC in LTACHs is high, primarily due to high admission prevalence and the resultant impact of high colonization pressure on cross transmission. In this setting, with an intervention in place, patient-to-patient transmission is insufficient to maintain endemicity. Inclusion of a pure cohort or single rooms for KPC-positive patients in an intervention bundle seemed to limit transmission compared to use of a mixed cohort.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1148–1154
We evaluated the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing in decreasing skin carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (KPC) among long-term acute care hospital patients. CHG bathing reduced KPC skin colonization, particularly when CHG skin concentrations greater than or equal to 128 μg/mL were achieved.
To estimate the level of hand or glove contamination with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) among healthcare workers (HCWs) who touch a patient colonized with VRE and/or the colonized patient's environment during routine care.
Structured observational study.
Medical intensive care unit of a 700-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital.
VRE-colonized patients and their caregivers.
We obtained samples from sites on the intact skin of 22 patients colonized with VRE and samples from sites in the patients' rooms, before and after routine care, during 27 monitoring episodes. A total of 98 unique HCWs were observed during 131 HCW observations. Observers recorded the sites touched by HCWs. Culture samples were obtained from HCWs' hands and gloves before and after care.
VRE were isolated from a mean (±SD) of 55% ± 24% of patient sites (n = 256) and 17% ± 12% of environmental sites (n = 1,572). Most HCWs (131 [56%]) touched both the patient and the patient's environment; no HCW touched only the patient. Of 103 HCWs whose hand samples were negative for VRE when they entered the room, 52% contaminated their hands or gloves after touching the environment, and 70% contaminated their hands or gloves after touching the patient and the environment (P = .101). In a univariate logistic regression model, the risk of hand or glove contamination was associated with the number of contacts made (odds ratio, 1.1 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.19). In a multivariate model, the effect of the number of contacts could not be distinguished from the effect of type of contact (ie, touching the environment alone or touching both the patient and the environment). Overall, 37% of HCWs who did not wear gloves contaminated their hands, and 5% of HCWs who wore gloves did so (an 86% difference).
HCWs were nearly as likely to have contaminated their hands or gloves after touching the environment in a room occupied by a patient colonized by VRE as after touching the colonized patient and the patient's environment. Gloves were highly protective with respect to hand contamination.
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