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Most of the known and most-complete Early Jurassic specimens of plesiosaurians were recovered from the United Kingdom and Germany, and few specimens from that age originate from other areas in Europe. This study describes a new plesiosaurian taxon from Toarcian deposits of Luxembourg, Microcleidus melusinae, represented by the most complete skeleton ever discovered from this country. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis places Microcleidus melusinae within Microcleididae, as a sister taxon of the species previously included in the genus Microcleidus. The new specimen studied here contributes to our understanding of the palaeodiversity of Early Jurassic plesiosaurians and confirms their high degree of ‘endemism’ and low morphological disparity.
Mandatory I fortification in bread was introduced in Australia in 2009 in response to the re-emergence of biochemical I deficiency based on median urinary I concentration (UIC)<100 µg/l. Data on the I status of lactating mothers and their infants in Australia are scarce. The primary aim of this study was to assess the I status, determined by UIC and breast milk I concentration (BMIC), of breast-feeding mothers in South Australia and UIC of their infants. The secondary aim was to assess the relationship between the I status of mothers and their infants. The median UIC of the mothers (n 686) was 125 (interquartile range (IQR) 76–200) µg/l and median BMIC (n 538) was 127 (IQR 84–184) µg/l. In all, 38 and 36 % of the mothers had a UIC and BMIC below 100 µg/l, respectively. The median UIC of infants (n 628) was 198 (IQR 121–296) µg/l, and 17 % had UIC<100 µg/l. Infant UIC was positively associated with maternal UIC (β 0·26; 95 % CI 0·14, 0·37, P<0·001) and BMIC (β 0·85; 95 % CI 0·66, 1·04, P<0·001) at 3 months postpartum after adjustment for gestational age, parity, maternal secondary and further education, BMI category and infant feeding mode. The adjusted OR for infant UIC<100 µg/l was 6·49 (95 % CI 3·80, 11·08, P<0·001) in mothers with BMIC<100 µg/l compared with those with BMIC≥100 µg/l. The I status of mothers and breast-fed infants in South Australia, following mandatory I fortification, is indicative of I sufficiency. BMIC<100 µg/l increased the risk of biochemical I deficiency in breast-fed infants.
To compare the breast-milk iodine concentrations (BMIC) of lactating women before and after the mandatory iodine fortification of bread in Australia in 2009.
Cross-sectional study. Breast milk samples were collected from two cohorts of women in South Australia within 7 d of delivery to determine BMIC. The percentage of samples with iodine concentration below 100 µg/l, a level considered adequate for breast-fed infants, was calculated. Sociodemographic information and intake of dietary supplements were obtained from all women.
The breast milk samples were collected between 2006 and 2007 in the pre-fortification cohort and between 2012 and 2013 in the post-fortification cohort.
The median (interquartile range) BMIC was higher in the post-fortification samples compared with samples collected in the pre-fortification period (187 (130–276) v. 103 (73–156) µg/l; P<0·05). Overall, the percentage of women with BMIC <100 µg/l was lower in the post-fortification cohort than in the pre-fortification cohort (13 v. 49 %; P<0·01). The percentage of women with BMIC <100 µg/l in the post-fortification cohort was lower among women who took iodine supplements in pregnancy (12 v. 29 %; P<0·01).
Mandatory iodine fortification of bread has resulted in an increase in the iodine content of breast milk in Australian women. However, iodine supplementation may still be required in some women post-iodine fortification to reach the level of BMIC that is considered adequate to meet the iodine requirement of full-term infants.
The envelopes surrounding AGB stars are similar to interstellar dark clouds in many respects; opaque to the visible light, they are transparent to mm wavelengths. Several envelopes, close enough to be spatially resolved with mm-wave interferometers, exhibit a remarkably rich molecular content, which can then be studied in detail as a function of radius. Because the envelopes are in expansion, their outer layers are older and more evolved than the inner ones, making it possible, thanks to a relatively simple geometry, to probe the time-dependence of the ongoing chemical processes.
The total solar irradiance was observed by Differential Dual Absolute Radiometers (DIARAD) within the SOVA (SOlar VAriablity) experiment during the EURECA-I mission (EUropean REtrievable CArrier; August 1992 – June 1993) and within the SOLCON (SOLar CONstant) experiment during the ATLAS-1 and 2 missions (ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Sciences; March 1992 and April 1993). The results from these observations are presented and the metrology aspect addressed through comparison of the simultaneaous measurements with the two DIARADs on EURECA-I and ATLAS-2, respectively.
Hemodynamic instability following emergent endotracheal intubation (EETI) is a potentially life-threatening adverse event. The objectives of this systematic literature review were to document the incidence of postintubation hemodynamic instability (PIHI), to determine the definitions for PIHI used in the available literature, and to examine factors associated with PIHI in adult patients who require EETI.
Articles published in Medline (1966–August 2012).
This systematic review included adult, inhospital studies of EETIs. Studies with nonemergent or pediatric patient populations were excluded.
Two authors independently performed data abstraction. Disagreements were resolved by a third party. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for Cohort Studies.
We estimated the pooled prevalence of PIHI across studies using a random effects meta-analysis. Subgroups analyzed included study design, intubation setting, geographic location of the study, physician experience, medications used for sedation, neuromuscular blockade, and definition of PIHI. Eighteen studies were analyzed, with sample sizes from 84 to 2,833 patients. The incidence of PIHI ranged from 5 to 440 cases per 1,000 intubations, with a pooled estimate of 110 cases per 1,000 intubations (95% CI 65–167).
PIHI was found to occur in 110 cases per 1,000 in-hospital, emergent intubations. However, heterogeneity among the included studies limits the reliability of this summary estimate. Further investigation is warranted.
As gut immaturity precludes full enteral feeding, very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants receive parenteral nutrition (PN) during the first few weeks of life. Weaning VLBW infants off PN, however, is a top priority since PN is associated with a high risk of complications. The decision making is purely empirical, as there is currently no suitable index of gastrointestinal (GI) maturity. Plasma citrulline concentration is considered an index of GI function in conditions such as short-bowel syndrome and coeliac disease in adults. To identify the factors determining urinary citrulline excretion, and determine whether urinary citrulline excretion could be used as a non-invasive index of GI tolerance to enteral feeding, nutritional intake and urinary citrulline were monitored bi-weekly in forty-seven preterm infants < 1500 g (interquartiles 880–1320 g), during their stay in the Neonatology unit. Median urinary citrulline was 24·7 μmol/mmol creatinine (14·5–38·6 μmol/mmol creatinine). No relationship was observed with the percentage of energy tolerated enterally. In multivariate regression analysis, weak correlations were found with post-conceptional age (P = 0·001), parenteral amino acid supply (P = 0·001) and the daily volume of enteral mixture administered (P = 0·043). A significant correlation was found with urinary nitrite+nitrate excretion (r 0·47; P < 0·001). We conclude that in preterm infants: (1) one of the major determinants of urinary citrulline may be the biosynthesis of citrulline from arginine by NO-synthase; (2) urinary citrulline cannot be used to predict GI tolerance. This is consistent with the observations that, in neonatal gut, citrulline is converted to arginine in situ rather than exported towards the kidneys as observed in adults.
Etherolysis of metal chlorides offers a versatile, simple nonhydrolytic
sol-gel route to transition metal oxides. The main limitation of the process
results from the insolubility of some metal chlorides in non aqueous
solvents. The general tendency of this nonhydrolytic process is to delay
crystallization of metal oxides.
A nonhydrolytic sol‐gel route based on the condensation between chlorides
and oxygen donors such as ethers and alkoxides is presented. Four examples,
silica, alumina, titania and binary oxides in the Al/Si system show that
this is a general route. The mechanism of this condensation is completely
different from the one of classical sol‐gel process, since it implies
nucleophilic substitution at the carbon center instead of the metal center.
As a consequence, the differences in reactivity between different metals are
reduced. In addition, the structure of the precursors may be retained in the
gel. Thus, the nonhydrolytic sol‐gel process is very efficient for the
preparation of homogeneous bicomponent oxides. Futhermore, nonhydrated gels
are formed, which allowed us to prepare amorphous aluminas with high surface
A nonhydrolytic sol-gel route to aluminosilicates is proposed which avoids
the problems associated with different hydrolysis rates for the precursors.
Two pre-mullite gels (Al2O3/SiO2=3/2) were
prepared in two different ways. The conversion to mullite was studied as a
probe for chemical homogeneity. The results indicate that a monophasic
precursor (i.e. homogeneous at the atomic level) may be easily obtained by
etherolysis of a mixture of SiCl4 and AlCl3.
Decisive advances in the fields of nanosciences and nanotechnologies are intimately related to the development of new instruments and of related writing schemes and methodologies. Therefore we have recently proposed exploitation of the nano-structuring potential of a highly Focused Ion Beam as a tool, to overcome intrinsic limitations of current nano-fabrication techniques and to allow innovative patterning schemes urgently needed in many nanoscience challenges. In this work, we will first detail a very high resolution FIB instrument we have developed specifically to meet these nano-fabrication requirements. Then we will introduce and illustrate some advanced FIB processing schemes. These patterning schemes are (i) Ultra thin membranes as an ideal template for FIB nanoprocessing. (ii) Local defect injection for magnetic thin film direct patterning. (iii) Functionalization of graphite substrates to prepare 2D-organized arrays of clusters. (iv) FIB engineering of the optical properties of microcavities.
In this work, a simple, fast and repeatable technique is proposed for tunable integrated thin film material characterizations. The technique does not depend on the type of material development method or special thin film processing. Moreover, additional structures or calibrations are not required. The proposed method can be used to determine the loss of a thin film material using radio frequency capacitance measurements in both parallel plate and interdigital topologies. An analytical formulation is given for the computation of the film loss based on its measured input impedance which is extracted from the measured scattering parameters. This technique is used for barium strontium titanate (BST) thin film material characterizations.
The ‘Peace of God’ excites the modern imagination. It is thought of as a pacifist movement to abolish a feudal system based on war or halt its progress towards total domination. The Church of the year 1000, so the story goes, faced down the lords and rescued the Capetian kingdom from chaos pending the reinvigoration of kingship around 1100. What a vital moment in social and Christian history it was indeed! The bishops of Aquitaine, Gothia, Burgundy, and France had heard the sighs of the peasant victims of the castle-knights’ warlike pillaging. They summoned them one and all into the presence of holy relics and forced them to swear on the relics that they would keep the peace. Those who bowed to the law of God and swore to respect the holy places and the unarmed had their sins forgiven. Those who refused to swear or, having sworn, went back on their oaths became objects of terrifying malediction. Unfettered social violence was thus met by a vehement religious response, and it was just that, a religious response. The knights had been disarmed by fear of God and the relics of His saints. Such is the historical representation that was canonized by Michelet and given a new lease of life in 1992 by Thomas Head and Richard Landes. Yet it is impossible not to be struck immediately by the often warlike – and simoniacal – behaviour of several of these bishops. Indeed I wonder whether I used strong enough words back in 1999, when I questioned the supposed pacifism of certain bishops between 989 and 1119.
Historians often quote Rodulfus Glaber's praise of the Aquitainian pacts and Ademar of Chabannes's sermons in their favour, but what of the contemporary criticisms levelled at Aimon of Bourges and Hugh of Auxerre, two of their main promoters? Again, it is all very well to enthuse with Suger of Saint-Denis, a century later, about King Louis VI's role as agent of the peace of God of 1111 and 1115. But what about the adverse comments of Guibert of Nogent and Orderic Vitalis, if not about the king himself, then certainly about the bishops who supported him?
True, we have a great deal of documentation. But it is very patchy and rather problematic.
The strength of the association between intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired nosocomial infections (NIs) and mortality might differ according to the methodological approach taken.
TO assess the association between ICU-acquired NIs and mortality using the concept of population-attributable fraction (PAF) for patient deaths caused by ICU-acquired NIs in a large cohort of critically ill patients.
Eleven ICUs of a French university hospital.
We analyzed surveillance data on ICU-acquired NIs collected prospectively during the period from 1995 through 2003. The primary outcome was mortality from ICU-acquired NI stratified by site of infection. A matched-pair, case-control study was performed. Each patient who died before ICU discharge was defined as a case patient, and each patient who survived to ICU discharge was denned as a control patient. The PAF was calculated after adjustment for confounders by use of conditional logistic regression analysis.
Among 8,068 ICU patients, a total of 1,725 deceased patients were successfully matched with 1,725 control Patients. The adjusted PAF due to ICU-acquired NI for patients who died before ICU discharge was 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.4%—14.8%). Stratified by the type of infection, the PAF was 6.1% (95% CI, 5.7%–6.5%) for pulmonary infection, 3.2% (95% CI, 2.8%–3.5%) for central venous catheter infection, 1.7% (95% CI, 0.9%–2.5%) for bloodstream infection, and 0.0% (95% CI, –0.4% to 0.4%) for urinary tract infection.
ICU-acquired NI had an important effect on mortality. However, the statistical association between ICU-acquired NI and mortality tended to be less pronounced in findings based on the PAF than in study findings based on estimates of relative risk. Therefore, the choice of methods does matter when the burden of NI needs to be assessed.
The impact of climatic changes that occurred during the last glacial maximum and the Holocene on vegetation changes in the Amazon Basin and the Guiana Shield are still widely debated. The aim of our study was to investigate whether major changes in vegetation (i.e. transitions between rainforests and C4 savannas) occurred in northern French Guiana during the Holocene. We measured variations in the ä13C of soil organic matter at eight sites now occupied by forest or savannah. The forest sites were selected to cover two regions (forest refugia and peneplains) which are thought to have experienced different intensities of disturbance during the latest Pleistocene and the Holocene. We found that none of the forest sites underwent major disturbances during the Holocene, i.e. they were not replaced by C4 savannahs or C4 forest savannahs for long periods. Our results thus suggest that tropical rainforests in northern French Guiana were resilient to drier climatic conditions during the Holocene. Nevertheless, geographical and vertical variations in the 13C of SOM were compatible with minor changes in vegetation, variations in soil processes or in soil physical properties.