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In the “Proteus” episode of Joyce’s Ulysses, Stephen Dedalus famously ruminates on the ineluctable modality of the visible and the audible, mentioning the notions of the “nebeneinander” [side by side] and the “nacheinander” [one after the other] Joyce’s source was probably Otto Weininger, who may, in his turn, be alluding to Lessing’s Laocoon.Lessing’s distinction between the Nacheinander of poetry and the Nebeneinander of visual arts was challenged in Joyce’s last work, Finnegans Wake.
Plastics are ubiquitous in our daily life due to their versatile characteristics, however, these excellent characteristics also contributed to the emergence of a gigantic garbage of floating plastics in our ocean, called the plastic soup. Within this research project we investigated the opportunities by design to cope with this wicked problem. The hypothesis is that picking small opportunities in a wicked problem can have a large impact on the related ecosystem. In addition, we also wanted to investigate how design students would deal with the problem to create larger awareness of the designers' impact and responsibility. Although there is no ideal answer to a systemic problem such as the plastic soup, intervening on systems is possible. As the characteristics of a product directly influence the way the entire value chain works, designers have a large responsibility / opportunity to influence the system. An experiment was executed with 69 design students to explore the opportunities. The resulting design concepts were discussed by experts, reasoning towards relationships, needs to elaborate the design practices, and ecodesign education in a circular economy.
Junior designers are not trained to cope with critical situations and conflict at work. Most design schools do not educate their design students to prepare them for (potential) conflict. As a result, junior designers often do not have conflict-handling skills to handle critical situations and conflicts. While some tools and methods exist to help them make responsible design choices, these often address value differences underlying (potential) conflict without taking the perspective of the designer, and thus without supporting young designers to start by reflecting on their own intrinsic values.
The aim of this study is to find a way to help junior designers to reflect effectively on critical situations, thereby improving their conflict-handling skills. Data was collected through four steps in an action research. Researchers collaborated with an identity programme for junior design professionals. Insights from try-outs and small interventions were transferred into design requirements for an approach to educate and facilitate junior design professionals to reflect more effectively on critical situations.
In his famous lecture “Qu’est-ce qu’un auteur?” Michel Foucault paradoxically refers to the author Samuel Beckett when he quotes the line “Qu’importe qui parle,” which Foucault interprets in terms of indifference. The full quotation is “Qu’importe qui parle, quelqu’un a dit qu’importe qui parle” [“What matter who’s speaking, someone said what matter who’s speaking”]1 – which adds an important nuance. For even though the gist of the line is that the biography of the author may be irrelevant, it does indicate that even the questioning of authorship involves a “speaker” or “writer.” If one chooses not to include biographical research in literary criticism, this usually implies the exclusion of the “bio-” element; but it is harder to ignore the “graphical” facet, the fact that writings are written, by “someone.”
This article reviews the concept of metastability in alloy design. While most materials are thermodynamically metastable at some stage during synthesis and service, we discuss here cases where metastable phases are not coincidentally inherited from processing, but rather are engineered. Specifically, we aim at compositional (partitioning), thermal (kinetics), and microstructure (size effects and confinement) tuning of metastable phases so that they can trigger athermal transformation effects when mechanically, thermally, or electromagnetically loaded. Such a concept works both at the bulk scale and also at a spatially confined microstructure scale, such as at lattice defects. In the latter case, local stability tuning works primarily through elemental partitioning to dislocation cores, stacking faults, interfaces, and precipitates. Depending on stability, spatial confinement, misfit, and dispersion, both bulk and local load-driven athermal transformations can equip alloys with substantial gain in strength, ductility, and damage tolerance. Examples include self-organized metastable nanolaminates, austenite reversion steels, metastable medium- and high-entropy alloys, as well as steels and titanium alloys with martensitic phase transformation and twinning-induced plasticity effects.
The use of loanwords is generally attributed to a social feature, like social prestige, and to semantic features, like the need to fill a lexical gap. However, few studies take into account variation in the use of loanwords within a speech community, and directly compare the frequency of loanwords from more than one source language. This paper contributes to research on lexical borrowing by comparing the distribution of loanwords from three different source languages in two large databases of dialect data. We take an onomasiological perspective, which allows us to gauge the frequency of borrowed lexical items vis-à-vis alternative expressions. Using Generalized Additive Mixed Modeling, we show that the usage of loanwords can only be explained by taking into account the interaction between semantics and geographical diffusion. Our analysis confirms that the patterns that occur almost exclusively reflect changes in socio-cultural history.
Background. Frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption are metrics commonly used to measure alcohol consumption behaviors. Epidemiological studies indicate that these alcohol consumption measures are differentially associated with (mental) health outcomes and socioeconomic status (SES). The current study aims to elucidate to what extent genetic risk factors are shared between frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and how these alcohol consumption measures are genetically associated with four broad phenotypic categories: (i) SES; (ii) substance use disorders; (iii) other psychiatric disorders; and (iv) psychological/personality traits.
Methods. Genome-Wide Association analyses were conducted to test genetic associations with alcohol consumption frequency (N = 438 308) and alcohol consumption quantity (N = 307 098 regular alcohol drinkers) within UK Biobank. For the other phenotypes, we used genome-wide association studies summary statistics. Genetic correlations (rg) between the alcohol measures and other phenotypes were estimated using LD score regression.
Results. We found a substantial genetic correlation between the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption (rg = 0.52). Nevertheless, both measures consistently showed opposite genetic correlations with SES traits, and many substance use, psychiatric, and psychological/personality traits. High alcohol consumption frequency was genetically associated with high SES and low risk of substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders, whereas the opposite applies for high alcohol consumption quantity.
Conclusions. Although the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption show substantial genetic overlap, they consistently show opposite patterns of genetic associations with SES-related phenotypes. Future studies should carefully consider the potential influence of SES on the shared genetic etiology between alcohol and adverse (mental) health outcomes.
We show a strong difference in surface mass and energy balance of a mountain glacier and two sites on the ice sheet at 64°N in West Greenland using stake and automated weather station observations. Net surface mass balance is on average 2.2 m w.e. less negative at the coast compared with the ice sheet in the same elevation. We find a larger energy turnover at the ice sheet margin on Qamanarssup Sermia than measured on the coastal mountain glacier Qassigiannguit with both energy input and output being of larger absolute value. More cloudiness and a thicker snow cover at the relatively humid coastal glacier result in smaller gains in net-shortwave radiation and smaller losses in net-longwave radiation and a less negative mass balance. Lower wind speeds at the coastal glacier result in weaker turbulent heat exchange between atmosphere and ice surface. On annual average, 17 W m−2 more energy is available for melt at the ice-sheet margin compared with the coastal glacier in the same elevation.
The likelihood with which language users insert optional words or morphemes that explicitly mark syntactic structure tends to increase in complex grammatical environments. This positive correlation between explicitness and complexity, best known as the Complexity Principle, has been observed for a multitude of case studies in both naturally occurring language and experimental settings. Researchers have sought the explanation for this Complexity Principle in three different domains: cognitive comprehension processing, the language channel, and cognitive production processing. Based on these accounts, we formulate predictions regarding the action radius of the Complexity Principle in the alternation between a direct and prepositional object of the Dutch verb zoeken ‘search’. These predictions are tested against corpus observations. Our results confirm accounts according to which optional elements indicate production difficulties, as well as those that explain the Principle as a result of restrictions on the language channel. In addition, our results indicate that the Principle is sensitive to context-determined restrictions that are the result of its underlying cause. This may present a possible caveat for alternation studies.
The shallow subsurface of Groningen, the Netherlands, is heterogeneous due to its formation in a Holocene tidal coastal setting on a periglacially and glacially inherited landscape with strong lateral variation in subsurface architecture. Soft sediments with low, small-strain shear wave velocities (VS30 around 200 m s−1) are known to amplify earthquake motions. Knowledge of the architecture and properties of the subsurface and the combined effect on the propagation of earthquake waves is imperative for the prediction of geohazards of ground shaking and liquefaction at the surface. In order to provide information for the seismic hazard and risk analysis, two geological models were constructed. The first is the ‘Geological model for Site response in Groningen’ (GSG model) and is based on the detailed 3D GeoTOP voxel model containing lithostratigraphy and lithoclass attributes. The GeoTOP model was combined with information from boreholes, cone penetration tests, regional digital geological and geohydrological models to cover the full range from the surface down to the base of the North Sea Supergroup (base Paleogene) at ~800 m depth. The GSG model consists of a microzonation based on geology and a stack of soil stratigraphy for each of the 140,000 grid cells (100 m × 100 m) to which properties (VS and parameters relevant for nonlinear soil behaviour) were assigned. The GSG model serves as input to the site response calculations that feed into the Ground Motion Model. The second model is the ‘Geological model for Liquefaction sensitivity in Groningen’ (GLG). Generally, loosely packed sands might be susceptible to liquefaction upon earthquake shaking. In order to delineate zones of loosely packed sand in the first 40 m below the surface, GeoTOP was combined with relative densities inferred from a large cone penetration test database. The marine Naaldwijk and Eem Formations have the highest proportion of loosely packed sand (31% and 38%, respectively) and thus are considered to be the most vulnerable to liquefaction; other units contain 5–17% loosely packed sand. The GLG model serves as one of the inputs for further research on the liquefaction potential in Groningen, such as the development of region-specific magnitude scaling factors (MSF) and depth–stress reduction relationships (rd).
Earthquakes associated with gas production have been recorded in the northern part of the Netherlands since 1986. The Huizinge earthquake of 16 August 2012, the strongest so far with a magnitude of ML = 3.6, prompted reassessment of the seismicity induced by production from the Groningen gas field. An international research programme was initiated, with the participation of many Dutch and international universities, knowledge institutes and recognised experts.
The prime aim of the programme was to assess the hazard and risk resulting from the induced seismicity. Classic probabilistic seismic hazard and risk assessment (PSHA) was implemented using a Monte Carlo method. The scope of the research programme extended from the cause (production of gas from the underground reservoir) to the effects (risk to people and damage to buildings). Data acquisition through field measurements and laboratory experiments was a substantial element of the research programme. The existing geophone and accelerometer monitoring network was extended, a new network of accelerometers in building foundations was installed, geophones were placed at reservoir level in deep wells, GPS stations were installed and a gravity survey was conducted.
Results of the probabilistic seismic hazard and risk assessment have been published in production plans submitted to the Minister of Economic Affairs, Winningsplan Groningen 2013 and 2016 and several intermediate updates. The studies and data acquisition further constrained the uncertainties and resulted in a reduction of the initially assessed hazard and risk.
We present the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic surface energy balance (SEB) using 4 years (1998–2001) of automatic weather station (AWS) data. The four AWSs are situated on an ice shelf, in the coastal and inland katabatic wind zone and the interior plateau of Dronning Maud Land. To calculate surface temperature we use a SEB closure assumption for a surface skin layer. Modelled and observed surface have a root-mean-square difference of 1.8 K at the plateau AWS (corresponding to an uncertainty in the SEB of 5Wm–2) and <1 K (3Wm–2) at the other sites. The effect of wind-speed sensor freezing on the calculated SEB is discussed. At all sites the annual mean net radiation is negative and the near-surface air is on average stably stratified. Differences in the seasonal cycle of the SEB are mainly caused by the different wind climates at the AWS sites. In the katabatic wind zone, a combination of clear skies and strong winds forces a large wintertime turbulent transport of sensible heat towards the surface, which in turn enhances the longwave radiative heat loss. On the coastal ice shelf and on the plateau, strong winds are associated with overcast conditions, limiting the radiative heat loss and sensible heat exchange. During the short Antarctic summer, the net radiation becomes slightly positive at all sites. Away from the cold interior, the main compensating heat loss at the surface is sublimation. In the interior, summer temperatures are too low to allow significant sublimation to occur; here, surface heat loss is mainly due to convection.
Snowpack changes during the melt season are often not incorporated in modelling studies of the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. Densification of snow accelerates when meltwater is present, due to percolation and subsequent refreezing, and needs to be incorporated in ice-sheet models for ablation calculations. In this study, simple parameterizations to calculate surface melt, snow densification and meltwater retention are included as surface boundary conditions in a large-scale ice-sheet model of Greenland. Coupling the snow densification and meltwater-retention processes achieves a separation of volume and mass changes of the surface layer, in order to determine the surface melt contribution to runoff. Experiments for present-day conditions show that snow depth at the onset of melt, mean annual near-surface air temperature and the mean density of the annual snow layer are key factors controlling the quantity and spatial distribution of meltwater runoff above the equilibrium line on the Greenland ice sheet.