Przewalski's gazelle Procapra przewalskii is endemic to China and is classified as Critically Endangered by IUCN—The World Conservation Union. Historically, the species occurred in parts of the provinces of Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Qinghai but now appears to be restricted to three populations around Qinghai Lake. These three populations— Bird Island, Hudong–Ketu and Yuanzhe—have all declined since 1988. The populations have been monitored since 1994 and the smallest, on Bird Island, appears to be on the brink of extinction, with only seven individuals being recorded in 1998. In the same year, the Hudong–Ketu population comprised 56 individuals (29.4 per cent males, 50 per cent females and 21 per cent juveniles) and the Yuanzhe population 51 individuals (29.4 per cent males, 43.1 per cent females and 27.5 per cent juveniles). The causes of the declines vary for each population but include loss of habitat as a result of desertification, poaching and, possibly, wolf predation. Human activity and high juvenile mortality are major threats to the continued survival of the gazelle. Conservation measures proposed are: (i) the establishment of a special reserve for Przewalski's gazelle; (ii) a study of the wolf-gazelle relationship and control of the number of wolves if necessary; (iii) a search for remnant populations of Przewalski's gazelle in other regions in their historical range and the identification of suitable sites for translocation and establishment of new populations.