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The Digital Green Certificate (DGC) proposed by the European Commission on the basis of facilitating the free movement rights of European Union (EU) citizens will be capable of effectively serving as a COVID-19 passport. In this contribution, we cast doubt on whether the DGC is fit for purpose, highlighting in particular the potential for the DGC to in fact facilitate greater free movement restrictions for a large number of EU citizens, in particular those who have received non- European Medicines Agency (EMA)-approved vaccines such as Sputnik V in compliance with EU law. Under the proposal as amended by the European Parliament, any destination Member State that accepts proof of vaccination “in order to waive restrictions to free movement” must apply the same waiver to any DGC-holder that has received an EMA-approved vaccine and has the option of doing so for vaccines added to the World Health Organization (WHO) Emergency Use Listing; however, such equal treatment is not available for DGC-holders who have received non-EMA/WHO vaccines. While this measure was alleged to be taken on grounds of public health, a convincing public health case has not been put forward. Instead, the DGC proposal as it stands disregards the promise of the internal market and sets the stage for its fragmentation through geopolitics and bilateralism.
The Russian Constitution was adopted by a referendum on December 12, 1993. It was inspired by Western constitutional traditions and internationally recognised democratic and human rights values. The Constitution established three core features of the Russian constitutional order, all breaking with the Soviet past:
• The Constitutional provisions on the foundations of the constitutional system, the protection of human rights, and constitutional review are unchangeable and cannot be amended, except via the summoning of a new Constitutional Assembly/national referendum (art. 135).
• The Constitution established a strongly monist approach to international law, integrating it into the Russian legal order and giving priority to duly ratified international treaties and agreements to override conflicting domestic laws (art. 15(4)).
• The Russian Constitutional Court enjoys exclusive competence to interpret the Constitution via binding precedents.
This collection marks the rich legacy of Professor Laurence W. Gormley's scholarship in the field of EU internal market law, providing a definitive critical appraisal of all the key aspects of the internal market, with an emphasis on goods and judicial protection; Professor Gormley's expert fields. Forty chapters deal with constitutional aspects of the EU internal market, the free movement of goods, persons and services, EMU, public procurement and competition law, institutional and procedural dimensions, and the EU's external relations, which includes matters relating to Brexit. The broad theme of the book, reflecting the many interests of Professor Gormley, will appeal to scholars, students and practicing lawyers. Dealing with both classic, foundational aspects of the EU internal market as well as highly topical matters, such as Brexit, this book will be a most welcome addition to every engaged legal scholar's library, thereby celebrating the legacy of a mentor and dear friend.