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Staphylococci have been isolated from various sites of the body of healthy sheep, as well as from many infections of those animals, the main one being mastitis. The objective of this review is to appraise the importance and significance of staphylococci in causing mastitis in ewes. The review includes a brief classification and taxonomy of staphylococci and describes the procedures for their isolation and identification, as well as their virulence determinants and the mechanisms of resistance to antibacterial agents. Various staphylococcal species have been implicated in staphylococcal mastitis and the characteristics of isolates are discussed with regards to potential virulence factors. Staphylococcal mastitis is explicitly described, with reference to sources of infection, the course of the disease and the relevant control measures. Finally, the potential significance of staphylococci present in ewes’ milk for public health is discussed briefly.
Europe was shocked by the news that a boat full of migrants sunk into the Mediterranean Sea taking with it fifty-seven people. The episode occurred when the Italian Navy vessel Sibilla, in its effort to protect the common EU borders collided with the migrants’ boat. Some serious debates took place then, raising questions as to whether it was an accident or part of a political effort to stop the flow of migrants or whether the Italian Navy could have intervened and rescued the migrants. The year was 1997 and the non-EU migrants were Albanians fleeing the 1997 civil war that followed the collapse of the ‘pyramid’ banking system in their home country. The transition of the country to market economy and the new ambitious financial innovations had been promoted by the World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) but also the European Economic Community (EEC).
In preparation for a multisite antibiotic stewardship intervention, we assessed knowledge and attitudes toward management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) plus teamwork and safety climate among providers, nurses, and clinical nurse assistants (CNAs).
Prospective surveys during January–June 2018.
All acute and long-term care units of 4 Veterans’ Affairs facilities.
The survey instrument included 2 previously tested subcomponents: the Kicking CAUTI survey (ASB knowledge and attitudes) and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ).
A total of 534 surveys were completed, with an overall response rate of 65%. Cognitive biases impacting management of ASB were identified. For example, providers presented with a case scenario of an asymptomatic patient with a positive urine culture were more likely to give antibiotics if the organism was resistant to antibiotics. Additionally, more than 80% of both nurses and CNAs indicated that foul smell is an appropriate indication for a urine culture. We found significant interprofessional differences in teamwork and safety climate (defined as attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety), with CNAs having highest scores and resident physicians having the lowest scores on self-reported perceptions of teamwork and safety climates (P < .001). Among providers, higher safety-climate scores were significantly associated with appropriate risk perceptions related to ASB, whereas social norms concerning ASB management were correlated with higher teamwork climate ratings.
Our survey revealed substantial misunderstanding regarding management of ASB among providers, nurses, and CNAs. Educating and empowering these professionals to discourage unnecessary urine culturing and inappropriate antibiotic use will be key components of antibiotic stewardship efforts.
Little is known about the association between dietary choline intake and mortality. We evaluated the link between choline consumption and overall as well as cause-specific mortality by using both individual data and pooling prospective studies by meta-analysis and systematic review. Furthermore, adjusted means of cardiometabolic risk factors across choline intake quartiles were calculated. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2010) were collected. Adjusted Cox regression was performed to determine the risk ratio (RR) and 95 % CI (95 % CI), as well as random-effects models and generic inverse variance methods to synthesise quantitative and pooling data, followed by a leave-one-out method for sensitivity analysis. After adjustments, we found that individuals consuming more choline had worse lipid profile and glucose homeostasis, but lower CRP levels (p < 0·001 for all comparisons) with no significant differences in anthropometric parameters and blood pressure. Multivariable Cox regression models revealed that individuals in the highest quartile (Q4) of choline consumption had a greater risk of total (23 %), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (33 %) and stroke (30 %) mortality compared with the first quartile (Q1) (p < 0·001 for all comparison). These results were confirmed in a meta-analysis, showing that choline intake was positively and significantly associated with overall (RR: 1·12, 95 % CI: 1·08–1·17, I2: 2·9) and CVD (RR: 1·28, 95 % CI: 1·17–1·39, I2: 9·6) mortality risk. In contrast, the positive association between choline consumption and stroke mortality became non-significant (RR: 1·18, 95 % CI: 0·97–1·43, p = 0·092, I2: 1·1). Our findings shed light on the potential adverse effects of choline intake on selected cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality risk.
Product success depends on its capacity to meet users’ expectations. Human Centred Design approach helps to reach this success by focussing on users’ needs in the design process. These needs are as well functional as hedonic. Designing products requires then to design hedonic properties affecting users’ perception. For sport products, people wants to improve their performances while maintaining their health. Sport products are then considered not only “sporty” but also “healthy”. Thus, integrating both health and sport expectations into the design process are necessary.
Last decades, Affective Engineering was developed to integrate perception into the design process. Applying this approach for sport products may allow defining and mixing sport and health perceptual characteristics all along the design process. However, defining these characterisitics into requirements implies to translate them into semantic terms. If we observe semantic descriptors for sport products and for health products, they seem opposite. In this paper, we aim defining a semantic space representative and respectful of both domains, sport and health, while they oppose.
The effect of signals on stability, stable throughput region, and delay in a two-user slotted ALOHA-based random-access system with collisions is considered. This work gives rise to the development of random access G-networks, which can model security attacks, expiration of deadlines, or other malfunctions, and introduce load balancing among highly interacting queues. The users are equipped with infinite capacity buffers accepting external bursty arrivals. We consider both negative and triggering signals. Negative signals delete a packet from a user queue, while triggering signals cause the instantaneous transfer of packets among user queues. We obtain the exact stability region, and show that the stable throughput region is a subset of it. Moreover, we perform a compact mathematical analysis to obtain exact expressions for the queueing delay by solving a non-homogeneous Riemann boundary value problem. A computationally efficient way to obtain explicit bounds for the expected number of buffered packets at user queues is also presented. The theoretical findings are numerically evaluated and insights regarding the system performance are derived.
A growing number of studies suggest that diet and renal function are related. However, little is known about the link between both whole grain (WG) and refined grain (RG) consumption and kidney function parameters. Thus, we investigated the association of WG and RG with urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and prevalent chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data from participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2010 were collected. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Survey design and sample weights were taken into consideration for statistical analyses. Finally, we included 16 325 participants from NHANES, 6·9 % of whom had prevalent CKD. In models adjusted for age, sex, race, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, adiposity, hypertension and diabetes status, mean eGFR significantly increased across increasing quartiles of WG (Q1: 88·2 v. Q4: 95·4 ml/min per 1·73 m2, P<0·001), whereas it significantly decreased across increasing quartiles of RG (Q1: 97·2 v. Q4: 88·4 ml/min per 1·73 m2, P<0·001). Furthermore, serum uric acid levels and ACR significantly decreased across quartiles of WG (both P<0·001). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, the likelihood of prevalent CKD was 21 % lower in the highest WG quartile compared with the lowest one. In conclusion, our results shed light on the beneficial impact of WG on kidney function and CKD, whereas RG is adversely associated with eGFR.
Bruges is the largest city in the province of West-Flanders in Belgium. Because of its ample canals, it is sometimes referred to as “Venice of the North.” As such, it is a major tourist destination, and during New Year’s Eve, there are many festivities. The AZ Sint-Jan is the largest hospital providing medical care to the area.
To examine the impact of the New Year’s Eve festivities on the workload of the emergency department of AZ Sint-Jan.
There were 826 patients included for analysis. On average, 41 patients presented themselves to the emergency department on New Year’s Eve between 06:00 PM and 08:00 AM. On a random day, there were only 31 patients. Most of the patients on New Year’s Eve arrived between 00:00 AM and 08:00 AM. 57% of all patients were male. 22% of all patients were intoxicated with alcohol. From 00:00 AM until 08:00 AM, one in three patients were intoxicated. The average age on admission was 36 years.
During New Year’s Eve there is a consistently higher workload in the emergency department. There is an influx of young males who are intoxicated. These patients tend to stay a long time to “sleep it off” and put considerable stress on the available resources. More attention should be given to risk mitigation strategies tailored to this group to prevent excessive drinking.
As of May 2018, a new European privacy law called the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is in order. With this law, every organization operating in the European Union (EU), needs to adhere to a strict set of rules concerning collection and processing of personal data.
To explore the consequences of the GDPR for data collection at mass gatherings in the European Union.
Since the law was published on April 27, 2016, a thorough reading of the law was conducted by 4 persons with a background in mass gathering health. The GDPR consists of 99 articles organized into 11 chapters. There are also 173 recitals to further explain certain ambiguities. Key articles and recitals relating to healthcare and scientific research were identified. Possible pitfalls and opportunities for data collection and processing at mass gatherings were noted.
Under article 4, key definitions are noted. There is a clear definition of “data concerning health”. According to the GDPR, health data is a special category of personal data which should not be processed according to article 9(1). However, there is an exception for scientific research (article 9(2)(j)). There are a few safeguards in place, as laid out in article 89. One interesting point is that according to article 89(2), certain derogations can take place if the law interferes with scientific research. The GDPR has major consequences for data collection and processing in the EU. However, with the use of certain safeguards (e.g., pseudonymization) there are still ample opportunities for scientific research. It is important to review one’s method of data collection to make sure it complies with the GDPR.
The Erasmus Plus programme ‘Innovative Education and Training in high power laser plasmas’, otherwise known as PowerLaPs, is described. The PowerLaPs programme employs an innovative paradigm in that it is a multi-centre programme where teaching takes place in five separate institutes with a range of different aims and styles of delivery. The ‘in class’ time is limited to four weeks a year, and the programme spans two years. PowerLaPs aims to train students from across Europe in theoretical, applied and laboratory skills relevant to the pursuit of research in laser–plasma interaction physics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Lectures are intermingled with laboratory sessions and continuous assessment activities. The programme, which is led by workers from the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Crete, and supported by co-workers from the Queen’s University Belfast, the University of Bordeaux, the Czech Technical University in Prague, Ecole Polytechnique, the University of Ioannina, the University of Salamanca and the University of York, has just completed its first year. Thus far three Learning Teaching Training (LTT) activities have been held, at the Queen’s University Belfast, the University of Bordeaux and the Centre for Plasma Physics and Lasers (CPPL) of TEI Crete. The last of these was a two-week long Intensive Programme (IP), while the activities at the other two universities were each five days in length. Thus far work has concentrated upon training in both theoretical and experimental work in plasma physics, high power laser–matter interactions and high energy density physics. The nature of the programme will be described in detail and some metrics relating to the activities carried out to date will be presented.