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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally
written up for the volume.
We have developed a synchrotron-based x-ray microdiffraction technique
for measuring depth-resolved residual stress distribution in
nanocrystalline films with submicron resolution . In this study, we
further refined this technique and applied it to low-friction and
high-hardness Cu-doped MoN films. These magnetron sputtered
nanocomposites films consist of MoN, Mo2N, and Cu phases, whose ratio
depends on Cu concentration. By using the microdiffraction technique, we
discovered that both the deviatoric and the hydrostatic components of the
residual stresses depend on the film depth (Fig.1). The former indicates
depth-dependent distribution of biaxial stresses, while the latter
implies depth-dependent defect distribution, which also depends on Cu
concentration. Thermal annealing of the nanocomposite film partially
relives the stress, significantly reduces the lattice spacing, and
eliminates the defect gradients. These results suggest that interstitial
N may play an important role in the lattice expansion and the defect
gradients formed during the non-equilibrium sputtering process. Our study
provides fresh insights into understanding the structure-property
relations in the magnetron sputtered MoN:Cu nanocomposites films.
Acknowledgements This work is supported by the Department of Energy (DOE)
FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. Use of the Advanced Photon
Source is supported by the DOE Office of Science under Contract No.
DE-AC02-06CH11357.  G. Chen, D. Singh, O. Eryilmaz, J. Routbort, B. C.
Larson, and W. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 172104 (2006).
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