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Concise and informative, this guide is for doctors preparing to specialise in stroke care and strokologists looking for rapid but in-depth scientific guidance on stroke management. This third edition is fully revised to ensure that medical professionals are completely up-to-date in this fast-moving field. Its practical and problem-based approach covers all important issues of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, and reviews epidemiology and risk assessment. This new edition features expanded sections on topics of stroke unit management, thrombolysis, neurointerventions, cognitive impairment, secondary prevention and rehabilitation, and includes new chapters on neurointensive care and small vessel disease. Comprehensive in its coverage, the textbook includes acute assessment, imaging and emergency interventions. The authors are renowned experts in their field and have been working together in a teaching faculty for the European Master in Stroke Medicine Programme, which is supported by the European Stroke Organisation and the World Stroke Organisation.
Radiocarbon dating is an important tool for reconstructing Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental history of the Antarctic continent. Because of the scarcity of datable material, new suitable substances are welcomed. We present here novel paleoenvironmental records—subfossil stomach oil deposits (mumiyo). This waxy organic material is found in petrel breeding colonies, especially in those of snow petrels, Pagodroma nivea. The substance is formed by accumulation and solidification of stomach oil regurgitated for the purpose of defense. We demonstrate and outline the usefulness and limitations of 14C dating mumiyo for determining dates of local ice retreat, moraines and petrel occupation history.
This article is a critical examination of the claim that the emergence of private self-regulatory regimes in the transnational sphere signals a new trend of self-constitutionalization outside the limits of nation-state based or intergovernmental control. It deals with the question to what extent the diffusion of public authority in the sphere beyond the state affects the responsibility of the state(s) to procure the legitimacy of such private self-regulation. First, a conceptual argument is developed which identifies private self-regulatory regimes as rule systems nested in a specific constitutional order of the international society, here described as ‘neo-Westphalian’ (Section I). Second, implications for the responsibility to procure the legitimacy of collectively binding regulatory functions performed by private actors in the sphere beyond the state are considered (Section II). Often cited as a model example of autonomous societal self-regulation, the lex sportiva renders particularly strong plausibility for the claimed non-existence of purely private self-regulation. The regulation of performance-enhancing substances can serve to demonstrate the complex interactions between multiple public and private sites of constitutional authority (Section III). In conclusion (Section IV), I argue that, although the ultimate responsibility for providing legitimacy continues to lie with the state/world of states, the political order of the international society as construed in neo-Westphalian terms provides a dispersed and fragmented constitutional-style legal framework with few reliable guarantees that states are capable or willing to enact their background role. Therefore, a substantial part of the burden of – initial – legitimation must be carried by those directly involved in private self-regulation by constituting and exercising public authority.