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In April 2010, an Indian university student was robbed while leaving the campus of his university in regional Queensland. Soon afterwards, the local newspaper described how a ‘gunman’ had accosted the student and ‘forced [him] to lay [sic] face-down on the ground’. The event was not isolated in the national context; there had been a sharp rise in media reports of violence against Indian students in Australia during the preceding six months. The attack in the regional city of Toowoomba appeared to echo these other incidents, given that the victim was an Indian student and the alleged perpetrators were young white Australian males. The case called our attention to how reports of violent racism in metropolitan centres might affect perceptions of social inclusion in regional communities.
The safety and nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas have been questioned. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed a goat milk infant formula with those of infants fed a typical whey-based cow milk infant formula. The secondary aim was to examine a range of health- and allergy-related outcomes. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with 200 formula-fed term infants randomly assigned to receive either goat or cow milk formula from 2 weeks to at least 4 months of age was conducted. A cohort of 101 breast-fed infants was included for comparison. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Nutritional status was assessed from serum albumin, urea, creatinine, Hb, ferritin, and folate and plasma amino acid concentrations at 4 months. Z-scores for weight, length, head circumference and weight for length were not different between the two formula-fed groups. There were differences in the values of some amino acids and blood biomarkers between the formula-fed groups, but the mean values for biomarkers were within the normal reference range. There were no differences in the occurrence of serious adverse events, general health, and incidence of dermatitis or medically diagnosed food allergy. The incidence of parentally reported blood-stained stools was higher in the goat milk formula-fed group, although this was a secondary outcome and its importance is unclear. Goat milk formula provided growth and nutritional outcomes in infants that did not differ from those provided by a standard whey-based cow milk formula.
The value of feedback about errors when learning a novel computer-based task was explored in two studies. The first study examined the optimal level of information to be provided in feedback about errors. The second study examined whether framing errors positively as opportunities to learn (which encourages error tolerance) or negatively as hindrances to learning (which encourages error avoidance) facilitated learning and performance. Both studies used a computer-based simulation of a management decision-making task. In the first study there were three feedback conditions: outcome feedback alone, outcome feedback plus error signal feedback, and outcome feedback plus corrective feedback. Corrective feedback produced better performance than error signal and outcome feedback but learning did not differ across the three conditions. Corrective feedback also facilitated the use of systematic exploration which was positively associated with performance and learning. Learners' self-efficacy moderated the effects of error feedback: learners with high self-efficacy showed high levels of performance in all conditions but for those with low self-efficacy, detailed corrective feedback was essential for learning. The second study explored the effects of positive vs. negative error framing and corrective vs. signal error feedback in a 2 × 2 design. Positive error framing produced more unsystematic exploration and worse performance than negative error framing. Positive error framing helped those with low self-efficacy but for those with higher self-efficacy it was of more value to frame errors negatively. The implications of the interactions between error framing, error feedback and learner characteristics are discussed along with implications for the study of error management, a positive error framing technique.
Indigenous conversation and voice are increasingly heard in the research literature but there needs to be more dialogue in order for it to be a two-way conversation. This paper contributes to research that attempts to redress this situation by reporting on conversations with Aboriginal parents and caregivers of students enrolled in a public secondary school in a large New South Wales country town. The conversations were conducted over a three-year period (2005-7) by a team non-Indigenous researchers working in collaboration with Indigenous researchers. In this paper, we describe the various approaches we developed to establish conversations with Aboriginal parents and caregivers, and the various themes that emerged over the course of the study. We also assess how this type of research is located within and contributes to, the existing research literature. Finally, we discuss the importance of ongoing conversations with Aboriginal parents and caregivers, and how schools and systems can better respond to well-established policy goals of productive parent-school relationships.
In recent years, government and hospital disaster planners have recognized the increasing importance of pharmaceutical preparedness for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) events, as well as other public health emergencies. The development of pharmaceutical surge capacity for immediate use before support from the (US) Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) becomes available is integral to strengthening the preparedness of local healthcare networks.
The Pharmaceutical Response Project served as an independent, multidisciplinary collaboration to assess statewide hospital pharmaceutical response capabilities. Surveys of hospital pharmacy directors were conducted to determine pharmaceutical response preparedness to CBRNE threats.
All 45 acute care hospitals in Maryland were surveyed, and responses were collected from 80% (36/45). Ninety-two percent (33/36) of hospitals had assessed pharmaceutical inventory with respect to biological agents, 92% (33/36) for chemical agents, and 67% (24/36) for radiological agents. However, only 64% (23/36) of hospitals reported an additional dedicated reserve supply for biological events, 67% (24/36) for chemical events, and 50% (18/36) for radiological events. More than 60% of the hospitals expected to receive assistance from the SNS within ≤48 hours.
From a pharmaceutical perspective, hospitals generally remain under-prepared for CBRNE threats and many expect SNS support before it realistically would be available. Collectively, limited antibiotics and other supplies are available to offer prophylaxis or treatment, suggesting that hospitals may have insufficient pharmaceutical surge supplies for a large-scale event. Although most state hospitals are improving pharmaceutical surge capabilities, further efforts are needed.
The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) by examining whether children with cerebral palsy (CP) remain in the same level over time. Participants were 610 children with CP (342 males, 268 females; mean age 6y 9mo [SD 2y 10mo]), range 16mo–13y). Children were assessed 2 to 7 times (mean 4.3) at 6-month (children <6y old) or 12-month(children [ges ]6y old) intervals. Seventy-three per cent of children remained in the same level for all ratings. The weighted kappa coefficient between the first and last ratings was 0.84 for children less than 6 years old and 0.89 for children at least 6 years old, indicating excellent chance-corrected agreement. Children initially classified in Levels I and V were least likely to be reclassified. There was a tendency for children younger than 6 years who were reclassified to be done so to a lower level of ability. The results provide evidence of stability of the GMFCS.
This study explored the relationships between the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), limb distribution, and type of motor impairment. Data used were collected in the Ontario Motor Growth study, a longitudinal cohort study with a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Canada (n=657; age 1 to 13 years at study onset). The majority (87.8%) of children with hemiplegia were classified as level I. Children with a bilateral syndrome were represented in all GMFCS levels, with most in levels III, IV, and V. Classifications by GMFCS and ‘limb distribution’ or by GMFCS and ‘type of motor impairment’ were statistically significantly associated (Pearson's χ2p<0.001), though the correlation for limb distribution (two categories) by GMFCS was low (tau-b=0.43). An analysis of function (GMFCS) by impairment (limb distribution) indicates that the latter clinical characteristic does not add prognostic value over GMFCS. Although classification of CP by impairment level is useful for clinical and epidemiological purposes, the value of these subgroups as an indicator of mobility is limited in comparison with the classification of severity with the GMFCS.
We report preliminary results of a radial velocity study of the old open cluster NGC 752 using an ensemble mean approach with Hydra multi-fiber spectroscopy on the 3.5-m WIYN telescope. The goal is to detect the higher amplitude extra-solar planetary systems and brown dwarf binaries that might reside in the cluster. The oscillation modes of mid-F stars at the redward edge of the instability strip can also be observed. The observation of NGC 752 is the first step in an ongoing study of a variety of clusters with different ages and metallicities.
Defining risk factors for central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) is critical to establishing prevention measures, especially for factors such as nurse staffing and antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs.
We prospectively monitored CVCs, nurse staffing, and patient-related variables for CVC-associated BSIs among adults admitted to eight ICUs during 2 years.
A total of 240 CVC-associated BSIs (2.8%) were identified among 4,535 patients, representing 8,593 CVCs. Antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs reduced the risk for CVC-associated BSI only among patients whose CVC was used to administer total parenteral nutrition (TPN, 2.6 CVC-associated BSIs per 1,000 CVC-days vs no TPN, 7.5 CVC-associated BSIs per 1,000 CVC-days; P = .006). Among patients not receiving TPN, there was an increase in the risk of CVC-associated BSI in patients cared for by “float” nurses for more than 60% of the duration of the CVC. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for CVC-associated BSIs were the use of TPN in non-antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs (P = .0001), patient cared for by a float nurse for more than 60% of CVC-days (P = .0019), no antibiotics administered to the patient within 48 hours of insertion (P = .0001), and patient unarousable for 70% or more of the duration of the CVC (P = .0001). Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) were associated with a lower risk for CVC-associated BSI (P = .0001).
Antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs reduced the risk of CVC-associated BSI by 66% in patients receiving TPN. Limiting the use of float nurses for ICU patients with CVCs and the use of PICCs may also reduce the risk of CVC-associated BSI.
Minimbah is an Aboriginal word whichmeans ‘place of learning’. Since self-management in 1987 by the local Aboriginal Management Committee, the school Director, Dianne Roberts has promoted parent, staff and community input at this place of learning. Improved parental involvement in this Aboriginal preschool was essential following the policy change from outside control to self-management.
“An economic interpretation of the American Revolution”
by Marc Egnal and Joseph A. Ernst
Although “An Economic Interpretation of the American Revolution” was written over two decades ago, it remains “the best starting point for historians interested in the role of the economy in the Revolution” (McCusker and Menard, 352). The essay concerns questions of profound importance to historians of all types. What role did economic forces play in the founding of this country? Or, more broadly, how did the American economy and American society become the way they are today? Our history matters. And this was a critical episode.
The essay is an excellent example of how historians convince one another. It opens with a review of the historiographical debate between Whig and Progressive historians. Marc Egnal and Joseph Ernst must recapitulate the ideas that have come before theirs, because there is no consensus on this subject and so that their original contributions can be highlighted and put in context. The historiography is also necessary to show the weaknesses of earlier theories, to understand better what needs patching up. In addition, the historiography reminds us of the complexity of the roots of the Revolution. The authors stress that there is no monocausal explanation, and they implicitly recognize that theirs will not be the final word. Notice that the article is titled “an” economic interpretation, not “the” economic interpretation.
“The changing economic role of women: A quantitative approach”
by Claudia Goldin
Women have always worked. Despite this continuity, there have been profound changes in the economic roles of American women in the past three centuries. In colonial America, the work performed by women in the home and the field helped ensure the survival of the family. Child rearing, housework, food processing, cloth and apparel manufacture, candlemaking, and a variety of farm chores were the primary responsibility of women. Outside the home, positions as domestics or farm servants were sometimes taken, especially by unmarried women. Market activity also included the sale of handicrafts and household manufacture.
In the antebellum period, factory production emerged and greatly expanded employment opportunities for women in the Northeast. Women played a major role in a number of industries, especially textiles. Opportunities for women continued to increase in the late nineteenth century with the rising demand for clerical workers. However, by 1890, only 19 percent of adult women participated in the labor market. Forty percent of single women took part, but only 4.6 percent of married women did. This is where Claudia Goldin's history picks up.
Goldin examines the movement of women into paid employment between 1890 and 1980 in “The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach.” She focuses on white married women because of “their numerical importance among all women, and because changes in their economic role have had repercussions transcending the economic sphere.”
The quick answer to McCloskey's question is “Yes” or an emphatic “Of course!” Many would consider it bizarre that this question should even be posed, but McCloskey documents the fact that economic historians are unread by mainstream economists. His audience in the Journal of Economic Literature is primarily these sinners, the academic economists whom he wishes to pull back from the road to hell. Many of these professional economists are in the same position as students reading this collection. They are uninformed about economic history and need to be shown its merits. This is McCloskey's task.
McCloskey demonstrates his points convincingly, and his sermon is splendidly written. Among the strengths of economic history that he illustrates is its ability to provide researchers with “more economic facts” and even “better economic facts” than are currently available from modern data. Had he written the piece more recently, he might have added that historical data are a marvelous teaching device as well. For example, the state Bureau of Labor Statistics data computerized by Susan Carter, Roger Ransom, and Richard Sutch have proven to be excellent for classroom use in economic history or quantitative methods courses (Whaples, 1992).
While his jeremiad is principally directed at economists, McCloskey additionally confirms that economic history is an indispensable part of good history. To study the past without examining economic events or using the tools of economics is to ignore an essential dimension of history.