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The aim was to design culturally acceptable and healthy diets with reduced energetic share of ultra-processed foods (UPF%) at no cost increment and to evaluate the impact of the change in the UPF% on diet quality. Food consumption and price data were obtained from the Household Budget Survey (n 55 970 households) and National Dietary Survey (n 32 749 individuals). Linear programming models were performed to design diets in which the mean population UPF% was reduced up to 5 % with no cost increment relative to the observed costs. The models were isoenergetic or allowed the energy content to vary according to the UPF%, and they were not constrained to nutritional goals (nutrient-free models) or maximised the compliance with dietary recommendations (nutrient-constrained models). Constraints regarding food preference were introduced in the models to obtain culturally acceptable diets. The mean population UPF% was 23·8 %. The lowest UPF% attained was approximately 10 %. The optimised diet cost was up to 20 % cheaper than the observed cost, depending on the model and the income level. In the optimised diets, the reduction in the UPF% was followed by an increase in fruits, vegetables, beans, tubers, dairy products, nuts, fibre, K, Mg, vitamin A and vitamin C in the nutrient-constrained models, compared with the observed consumption in the population. There was little variation in most nutrients across the UPF% reduction. The UPF% reduction in the nutrient-free models impacted only trans-fat and added sugar content. UPF% reduction and increase in diet quality are possible at no cost increment.
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is associated with adverse health outcomes and is found in many canned foods. It is not understood if some BPA contamination can be washed away by rinsing. The objective of this single-blinded crossover experiment was to determine whether BPA exposure, as measured by urinary concentrations, could be decreased by rinsing canned beans prior to consumption. Three types of hummus were prepared from dried beans, rinsed, and unrinsed canned beans. Fourteen healthy participants ate two samples of each hummus over six experimental days and collected spot urine specimens for BPA measurement. The geometric mean BPA levels for dried beans BPA (GM = 0.97 ng/ml, 95%CI = 0.74,1.26) was significantly lower than rinsed (GM = 1.89 ng/ml, 1.37,2.59) and unrinsed (GM = 2.46 ng/ml, 1.44,4.19). Difference-in-difference estimates showed an increase in GM BPA from pre- to post-hummus between unrinsed and rinsed canned beans of 1.39 ng/ml, p-value = 0.0400. Rinsing canned beans was an effective method to reduce BPA exposure.
We implemented universal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing of patients undergoing surgical procedures as a means to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The rate of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was <0.5%, which suggests that early local public health interventions were successful. Although our protocol was resource intensive, it prevented exposures to healthcare team members.
Yerba mate(ilex paraguariensis(IP))is a plant widely consumed in South America as a hot(mate)or cold infusion beverage(tereré). During the last years, there was an increasing interest in its health properties supported by a growing scientific evidence. These studies showed that the IP could have hepatoprotective, hypocholesterolemic, diuretic and antioxidant properties. Furthermore it showed to be a nervous system stimulant and protectant(1). Recently, there were reports about its invitro potential to inhibit the Monoaminooxidase(MAO) which can have effects on mood state(2).
Exploratory research to study possible associations between the use of IP and mood symptoms.
An observational cross-sectional study was conducted by an online survey in paraguayan population through an invitation. The survey collected data information about sociodemographics conditions, substance use(including IP), Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and PHQ-9 scale for depressive symptoms. A descriptive and multiple lineal regression analysis of the data was performed.
300 subjects accepted the invitation and information was obtained of about 76% of them. The sample mean age(SD) was 27(7,4), most of them females(61,6%)and with universitary studies(66,1%). The 86% of the sample consumed IP regularly and 56% daily. Only a 3,5% reported previous psychiatric history. A significant relationship was observed between the use of IP and daily alcohol(p=0,022). No relevant associations were found concerning IP use and anxiety trait-state or depressive symptoms after adjusting for the use of coffee, tea, alcohol and others sociodemographic variables.
No significant associations were found in the sample studied between the use of IP and state-trait anxiety or depressive symptoms. Although, given the frequency of its use, the association with alcohol consumption and its potential clinical applications, more and bigger studies might be necessary.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
A large body of research has explored opportunities to mitigate climate change in agricultural systems; however, less research has explored opportunities across the food system. Here we expand the existing research with a review of potential mitigation opportunities across the entire food system, including in pre-production, production, processing, transport, consumption and loss and waste. We detail and synthesize recent research on the topic, and explore the applicability of different climate mitigation strategies in varying country contexts with different economic and agricultural systems. Further, we highlight some potential adaptation co-benefits of food system mitigation strategies and explore the potential implications of such strategies on food systems as a whole. We suggest that a food systems research approach is greatly needed to capture such potential synergies, and highlight key areas of additional research including a greater focus on low- and middle-income countries in particular. We conclude by discussing the policy and finance opportunities needed to advance mitigation strategies in food systems.
The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of low-fat dairy product consumption are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether low-fat yogurt reduces biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in women. Premenopausal women (BMI 18·5–27 and 30–40 kg/m2) were randomised to consume 339 g of low-fat yogurt (yogurt non-obese (YN); yogurt obese (YO)) or 324 g of soya pudding (control non-obese; control obese (CO)) daily for 9 weeks (n 30/group). Fasting blood samples were analysed for IL-6, TNF-α/soluble TNF II (sTNF-RII), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, monocyte gene expression, soluble CD14 (sCD14), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS binding protein (LBP), IgM endotoxin-core antibody (IgM EndoCAb), and zonulin. BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also determined. After 9-week yogurt consumption, YO and YN had decreased TNF-α/sTNFR-RII. Yogurt consumption increased plasma IgM EndoCAb regardless of obesity status. sCD14 was not affected by diet, but LBP/sCD14 was lowered by yogurt consumption in both YN and YO. Yogurt intervention increased plasma 2-arachidonoylglycerol in YO but not YN. YO peripheral blood mononuclear cells expression of NF-κB inhibitor α and transforming growth factor β1 increased relative to CO at 9 weeks. Other biomarkers were unchanged by diet. CO and YO gained approximately 0·9 kg in body weight. YO had 3·6 % lower diastolic blood pressure at week 3. Low-fat yogurt for 9 weeks reduced biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endotoxin exposure in premenopausal women compared with a non-dairy control food. This trial was registered as NCT01686204.
The Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) method is an internationally recognized complex intervention in dementia research and care for implementing person-centered care. The Leben-QD II trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of DCM with regard to caregivers.
The nine participating nursing home units were allocated to three groups: (1) DCM method experienced ≥ 1 year, (2) DCM newly introduced during this trial, and (3) regular rating of residents’ quality of life (control group). Linear mixed models were fit to cluster-aggregated data after 0, 6, and 18 months, adjusting for repeated measurements and confounders. The primary outcome was the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ) score; the secondary outcomes were the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI).
The analysis included 201 caregivers with 290 completed questionnaires (all three data collection time points). The ADQ showed a significant time and time*intervention effect. At baseline, the estimated least-square means for the ADQ were 71.98 (group A), 72.46 (group B), and 71.15 (group C). The non-linear follow-up of group A indicated an estimated-least square means of 69.71 (T1) and 68.97 (T2); for group B, 72.80 (T1) and 72.29 (T2); and for group C, 66.43 (T1) and 70.62 (T2).
The DCM method showed a tendency toward negatively affecting the primary and secondary outcomes; this finding could be explained by the substantial deviation in adherence to the intervention protocol.
Division XI, the predecessor to Division D until 2012, was formed in 1994 at the IAU General Assembly in The Hague by merging Commission 44 Astronomy from Space and Commission 48 High Energy Astrophysics. Historically, space astrophysics started with the high energy wavelengths (far UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray astronomy) which are only accessible from space. However, in modern astronomy, to study high energy astrophysical processes, almost all wavelengths are used (including gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, infrared, submillimeter and radio). In addition other ground-based facilities, including gravitational wave antennas, neutrino detectors and high-energy cosmic ray arrays are joining in this era of multi-messenger astrophysics, as well as space missions with the primary goals to discover and study exoplanets, are under the umbrella of Division XI.
Person-centered care (PCC) is a widely recognized concept in dementia research and care. Dementia Care Mapping (DCM) is a method for implementing PCC. Prior studies have yielded heterogeneous results regarding the effectiveness of DCM for people with dementia (PwD). We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of DCM with regard to quality of life (QoL) and challenging behavior in PwD in nursing homes (NHs).
Leben-QD II is an 18-month, three-armed, pragmatic quasi-experimental trial. The sample of PwD was divided into three groups with three living units per group: (A) DCM applied since 2009, (B) DCM newly introduced during the study, and (C) a control intervention based on a regular and standardized QoL rating. The primary outcome was QoL measured with the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) proxy, and the secondary outcomes were QoL (measured with QUALIDEM) and challenging behavior (measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Nursing Home version, NPI-NH).
There were no significant differences either between the DCM intervention groups and the control group or between the two DCM intervention groups regarding changes in the primary or secondary outcomes. At baseline, the estimated least square means of the QoL-AD proxy for groups A, B, and C were 32.54 (confidence interval, hereafter CI: 29.36–35.72), 33.62 (CI: 30.55–36.68), and 30.50 (CI: 27.47–33.52), respectively. The DCM groups A (31.32; CI: 28.15–34.48) and B (27.60; CI: 24.51–30.69) exhibited a reduction in QoL values, whereas group C exhibited an increase (32.54; CI: 29.44–35.64) after T2.
DCM exhibited no statistically significant effect in terms of QoL and challenging behavior of PwD in NHs. To increase the likelihood of a positive effect for PwD, it is necessary to ensure successful implementation of the intervention.
JANNUS (Joint Accelerators for Nanosciences and Nuclear Simulation), the unique triple beam facility in Europe, offers the possibility to produce three ion beams simultaneously for nuclear recoil damage and implantation of a large array of ions for well-controlled modeling-oriented experiments. The first triple beam irradiation was performed in March 2010. Along with irradiation developments, continuous efforts have been made to implement ex situ and in situ characterization tools. In this study, we set out the present status of the JANNUS facility of the Saclay site. We focus on the instrumentation used for conducting multi-ion beam irradiations and implantations as well as for characterizing bombarded samples. On-line control of irradiation parameters, in situ modification monitoring using Raman spectroscopy or ion beam induced luminescence, and ex situ characterization by ion beam surface analysis [Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA)] of implanted samples are detailed. Some examples of single, dual, and triple beam irradiation configurations are presented. Access to the facility is provided by the French network EMIR for national and international users (http://emir.in2p3.fr/).
The aim of this work was to test the performance of a shrimp-tomato culture system (STCS) in an arid-semiarid region (Sonora, Mexico) and to evaluate the water quality variables and phytoplankton variation of shrimp effluent and that water returning from the tomato module culture. The field study was conducted using groundwater and consisted of three circular tanks that were used for shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farming and were coupled to one culture module of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). The shrimp effluent was used to irrigate the tomato plants. The yield was 11.1±0.2 kg shrimp per tank (3.9±2.0 ton ha−1) and 33.3 kg tomatoes per 45 plants (36.1±2.3 ton ha−1). During the culture, the concentrations of nutrients were (mg L−1): total N-ammonia, <0.001–0.848; N-nitrite, <0.001–1.45; N-nitrate, 5.2–172.2; dissolved reactive-P, <0.005–0.343. A total of 35 taxa belonging to three different algal classes were observed: Chlorophyta (87 to 98%), Bacilliariophyta (2 to 9%) and Cyanophyta (0–3%). This STCS allowed us to harvest the equivalent of 3.9 ton ha−1 of shrimp and 36.3 ton ha−1 of tomatoes, with a water consumption of 2.1 m3 per kg harvested of both products.
To describe the epidemiology of chromosomal and non-chromosomal cases of atrioventricular septal defects in Europe.
Data were obtained from EUROCAT, a European network of population-based registries collecting data on congenital anomalies. Data from 13 registries for the period 2000–2008 were included.
There was a total of 993 cases of atrioventricular septal defects, with a total prevalence of 5.3 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval 4.1 to 6.5). Of the total cases, 250 were isolated cardiac lesions, 583 were chromosomal cases, 79 had multiple anomalies, 58 had heterotaxia sequence, and 23 had a monogenic syndrome. The total prevalence of chromosomal cases was 3.1 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval 1.9 to 4.3), with a large variation between registers. Of the 993 cases, 639 cases were live births, 45 were stillbirths, and 309 were terminations of pregnancy owing to foetal anomaly. Among the groups, additional associated cardiac anomalies were most frequent in heterotaxia cases (38%) and least frequent in chromosomal cases (8%). Coarctation of the aorta was the most common associated cardiac defect. The 1-week survival rate for live births was 94%.
Of all cases, three-quarters were associated with other anomalies, both chromosomal and non-chromosomal. For infants with atrioventricular septal defects and no chromosomal anomalies, cardiac defects were often more complex compared with infants with atrioventricular septal defects and a chromosomal anomaly. Clinical outcomes for atrioventricular septal defects varied between regions. The proportion of termination of pregnancy for foetal anomaly was higher for cases with multiple anomalies, chromosomal anomalies, and heterotaxia sequence.