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Individuals with gender dysphoria display an incongruence between birth-assigned gender and gender expression. However, there is no existing Chinese measure for gender dysphoria.
This study aims to validate the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale – Gender Spectrum (UGDS-GS) in a Chinese population, and compare the psychometric properties of the UGDS-GS with one frequently used scale for gender dysphoria measurement, the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA).
A total of 2646 Chinese participants were recruited. The following information was collected: sociodemographic variables, gender identity, sexual orientation, gender dysphoria measured by the UGDS-GS and the GIDYQ-AA, anxiety, depression and suicide assessment. Principal component analyses and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to test the fitness of the model. Discriminant validity was tested with one-way analysis of variance.
The UGDS-GS showed good psychometric properties, with the GIDYQ-AA demonstrating slightly better psychometric properties than the UGDS-GS. UGDS-GS also showed strong internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.89), and good convergent validity and criterion validity. Exploratory factor analysis showed a one-factor structure (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, 0.93; χ2 = 13 342.50; d.f. = 153; P < 0.001). The UGDS-GS was positively associated with anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and self-harm. We also found the results were robust in different samples.
The validated UGDS-GS can significantly stimulate and promote gender dysphoria assessment in Chinese populations, allowing for assessment in a more diverse subset of gender minorities.
Pursuing ambidextrous foreign direct investment (FDI) has been suggested as a desirable strategic choice of emerging economy (EE) firms in their internationalization. Yet, reconciling explorative and exploitative activities overseas is complicated due to their conflicting and tensional nature. This study explores why some EE firms can achieve high levels of ambidextrous FDI while others cannot. Drawing on upper echelons theory, we propose a micro-foundation perspective of ambidextrous FDI by studying top management teams’ (TMTs) attributes. Applying a configurational approach to a sample of 294 EE firms’ FDI observations (of which 43 are ambidextrous FDI in nature) from 2011 to 2015, we not only confirm the equal importance of both TMT incentive and cognitive factors as causal conditions to achieve a high degree of ambidextrous FDI, but also provide original evidence on the interactive configurations of those factors that lead to ambidextrous FDI.
Neuroanatomical abnormalities in first-episode psychosis (FEP) tend to be subtle and widespread. The vast majority of previous studies have used small samples, and therefore may have been underpowered. In addition, most studies have examined participants at a single research site, and therefore the results may be specific to the local sample investigated. Consequently, the findings reported in the existing literature are highly heterogeneous. This study aimed to overcome these issues by testing for neuroanatomical abnormalities in individuals with FEP that are expressed consistently across several independent samples.
Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging data were acquired from a total of 572 FEP and 502 age and gender comparable healthy controls at five sites. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate differences in grey matter volume (GMV) between the two groups. Statistical inferences were made at p < 0.05 after family-wise error correction for multiple comparisons.
FEP showed a widespread pattern of decreased GMV in fronto-temporal, insular and occipital regions bilaterally; these decreases were not dependent on anti-psychotic medication. The region with the most pronounced decrease – gyrus rectus – was negatively correlated with the severity of positive and negative symptoms.
This study identified a consistent pattern of fronto-temporal, insular and occipital abnormalities in five independent FEP samples; furthermore, the extent of these alterations is dependent on the severity of symptoms and duration of illness. This provides evidence for reliable neuroanatomical alternations in FEP, expressed above and beyond site-related differences in anti-psychotic medication, scanning parameters and recruitment criteria.
Children of parents with mental disorder face multiple challenges.
To summarise evidence about parental mental disorder and child physical health.
We searched seven databases for cohort or case–control studies quantifying associations between parental mental disorders (substance use, psychotic, mood, anxiety, obsessive–compulsive, post-traumatic stress and eating) and offspring physical health. Studies were excluded if: they reported perinatal outcomes only (<28 days) or outcomes after age 18; they measured outcome prior to exposure; or the sample was drawn from diseased children. A meta-analysis was conducted. The protocol was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42017072620).
Searches revealed 15 945 non-duplicated studies. Forty-one studies met our inclusion criteria: ten investigated accidents/injuries; eight asthma; three other atopic diseases; ten overweight/obesity; ten studied other illnesses (eight from low-and middle-income countries (LMICs)). Half of the studies investigated maternal perinatal mental health, 17% investigated paternal mental disorder and 87% examined maternal depression. Meta-analysis revealed significantly higher rates of injuries (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.04–1.26), asthma (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.12–1.41) and outcomes recorded in LMICs (malnutrition: OR = 2.55, 95% CI 1.74–3.73; diarrhoea: OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.65–2.84). Evidence was inconclusive for obesity and other atopic disorders.
Children of parents with mental disorder have health disadvantages; however, the evidence base is limited to risks for offspring following postnatal depression in mothers and there is little focus on fathers in the literature. Understanding the physical health risks of these vulnerable children is vital to improving lives. Future work should focus on discovering mechanisms linking physical and mental health across generations.
Thermocapillary convection has always been one of the most important research topics in microgravity fluid physics. A space experimental study on the thermocapillary convection in an open annular liquid pool – a typical thermocapillary flow system – has been conducted on the SJ-10 satellite of China. This space experiment has observed the spatial temperature distribution of the liquid free surface using an infrared thermal imager, obtained the flow pattern transition process, analysed the oscillation characteristics and revealed the instability mechanism of themocapillary convection. The shape effects on the flow instability are researched by changing the volume ratio, Vr, which denotes the ratio of the liquid volume to the volume of the cylindrical gap between the walls. The volume ratio effect has been focused on for the first time. For a certain volume ratio, the flow pattern would transform from the steady state to the oscillation state accompanied by directional propagating hydrothermal waves with increasing temperature difference. In addition, the significant influences of the volume ratio on the critical conditions and wavenumber selection have been analysed in detail.
Seed reserves play vital roles in seed germination and seedling growth and their variation may be related to various environment factors, plant traits and phylogenetic history. Here, the evolutionary correlation associated with seed mass and altitude and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) allocation of seeds among 253 alpine herbaceous plants was tested. In this study, phylogeny had strong limitations on nutrient allocation of seeds across species, and species from younger phylogenetic groups tended to have higher N and P contents, which might be considered as the evolutionary selection of seed plants. Higher seed N and P content would help seedlings to gain more survival chance and stronger competitive capacity, and their progeny would be more likely to be preserved. When phylogeny was considered, altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content, but the negative effects on seed mass were all expressed. The independent effects of altitude and seed mass suggest that the nutrient allocation of seeds might be affected by both environment and plant traits. In addition, altitude and seed mass displayed partial overlapping effects on nutrient allocation of seeds. The negative effects of seed mass were affected slightly by altitude, whereas altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content when seed mass was controlled. Above all, seed P content showed obvious and general correlations with seed mass, altitude and age of clade, which indicated that higher seed P content might be an adaptive selection of species associated with growth and survival of progeny.
In this work, the high-performance silicon carbide particle SiCp[carbon nanotube (CNT)] hybrid reinforcement is currently explored to develop the advanced metal matrix composites. 17 wt% SiCp(CNT)/Al composites were fabricated by a powder metallurgy technique, in which SiCp(CNT) hybrid reinforcement with various CNT contents (e.g., 3, 6 and 9 wt%) were applied. Effects of CNT content on the morphology of SiCp(CNT) hybrid reinforcement, the microstructural characteristics, and the tensile mechanical behavior of SiCp(CNT)/Al composites were studied as well. Especially, the SiCp(CNT)/Al composites with 6 wt% CNT in SiCp(CNT) hybrid reinforcement exhibited the most significant enhancing effects in the elastic modulus and tensile strength. Meanwhile, the SiCp(CNT)/Al composites produced a synergistic strengthening effect of SiCp and CNT compared to SiCp/Al composites, while the SiCp(CNT)/Al composites with high CNT content in SiCp(CNT) hybrid reinforcement provided weak improvement in the tensile strength and ductility due to the forming agglomeration of CNT in the matrix.