Large numbers of the leptomedusa Earleria bruuni were observed inside a semi-closed deep-sea caldera during a comparative survey of the macrozooplankton fauna inside and outside the Kurose Hole, Izu-Ogasawara Islands, by the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) ‘Dolphin-3K’, on 24 September 2000. The Kurose Hole is an inactive volcanic caldera of 790 m bottom depth, located within the Izu-Bonin island arc, south of Tokyo. Archived video and audio data from a dive by the human-occupied vehicle (HOV) ‘Shinkai 2000’, carried out 3 weeks after the ROV dives, was also analysed. During all dives within the caldera, E. bruuni was present in large numbers and, during the HOV dive, two specimens for morphological analysis were obtained. Herein, we report E. bruuni from the Pacific Ocean for the first time. The vertical profiles of environmental factors and the vertical distributions of gelatinous macrozooplankton taxa such as salps, ctenophores, hydromedusae, siphonophores and scyphomedusae, were extremely different inside and outside the caldera. Inside the caldera the water temperatures were warm and dissolved oxygen levels were high compared with outside. For each taxon, their distributions were characterized and compared between the inside and outside of the caldera, and with previous literature reports.