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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We aimed to determine if GLP-1 receptor agonists exert beneficial effects on surrogate measures of cardiovascular function independently of weight loss. Our objective was to compare the outcomes between GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment versus a similar drug without cardiovascular benefit versus weight loss through diet alone. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We enrolled 88 individuals with obesity (BMI â‰¥ 30kg/m2) and pre-diabetes and randomized them in a 2:1:1 ratio to 14 weeks of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin, or hypocaloric diet. Sitagliptin blocks degradation of endogenous GLP-1 but does not cause weight loss or lower adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Treatment was double-blinded and placebo-controlled for drug, and unblinded for diet. Primary endpoints were flow-mediated dilation (FMD) to assess endothelial vasodilatory function, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) to assess endothelial fibrinolytic function. We used a general linear model for each outcome and included gender as a covariate for FMD. Baseline characteristics were similar. Mean age was 50, with 32% men and 13% black. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: At 14 weeks, diet and liraglutide caused weight loss (diet -4.3 Â± 3.2 kg, P<0.01; liraglutide -2.7 Â± 3.2, P<0.01), while sitagliptin did not (-0.7 Â± 2.0, P=0.17). Diet did not improve FMD at 14 weeks compared to baseline (+0.9%, 95% CI [-1.5, 3.3], P=0.46). FMD tended to increase after liraglutide and sitagliptin but was not significant (liraglutide +1.2 [-0.3, 2.8], P=0.12; sitagliptin +1.6 [-0.6, 3.8], P=0.15). Given that liraglutide and sitagliptin work through the same GLP-1 pathway, we combined the liraglutide and sitagliptin groups for overall effect on FMD, which was significantly improved from baseline (+1.4 [0.1, 2.8], P=0.04). Diet and liraglutide improved PAI-1 at 14 weeks (diet -4.4U/mL, [-8.5, -0.2], P=0.04; liraglutide -3.4 [-6.0, -0.7], P=0.01), while sitagliptin did not (-1.4 [-5.1, 2.3], P=0.46). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Activation of the GLP-1 pathway by liraglutide or sitagliptin improves FMD independent of weight loss, while PAI-1 improvement is weight-loss dependent and is only seen after liraglutide or diet. Our study suggests the cardiovascular benefit of liraglutide may be due to combined improvements in endothelial vasodilatory and fibrinolytic function.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly increased depression rates, particularly in emerging adults. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in depression risk before and during COVID-19 in a cohort of emerging adults in the U.S. and to determine whether prior drinking or sleep habits could predict the severity of depressive symptoms during the pandemic.
Participants were 525 emerging adults from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a five-site community sample including moderate-to-heavy drinkers. Poisson mixed-effect models evaluated changes in the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) from before to during COVID-19, also testing for sex and age interactions. Additional analyses examined whether alcohol use frequency or sleep duration measured in the last pre-COVID assessment predicted pandemic-related increase in depressive symptoms.
The prevalence of risk for clinical depression tripled due to a substantial and sustained increase in depressive symptoms during COVID-19 relative to pre-COVID years. Effects were strongest for younger women. Frequent alcohol use and short sleep duration during the closest pre-COVID visit predicted a greater increase in COVID-19 depressive symptoms.
The sharp increase in depression risk among emerging adults heralds a public health crisis with alarming implications for their social and emotional functioning as this generation matures. In addition to the heightened risk for younger women, the role of alcohol use and sleep behavior should be tracked through preventive care aiming to mitigate this looming mental health crisis.
Children with CHD who undergo cardiopulmonary bypass are at an increased risk of acute kidney injury. This study evaluated the association of end-organ specific injury plasma biomarkers for brain: glial fibrillary acidic protein and heart: Galectin 3, soluble suppression of tumorgenicity 2, and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide with acute kidney injury in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.
Materials and Methods:
We enrolled consecutive children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood samples were collected pre-bypass in the operating room and in the immediate post-operative period. Acute kidney injury was defined as a rise of serum creatinine ≥50% from pre-operative baseline within 7 days after surgery.
Overall, 162 children (mean age 4.05 years, sd 5.28 years) were enrolled. Post-operative acute kidney injury developed in 55 (34%) children. Post-operative plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were significantly higher in patients with acute kidney injury (median 0.154 (inter-quartile range 0.059–0.31) ng/ml) compared to those without acute kidney injury (median 0.056 (inter-quartile range 0.001–0.125) ng/ml) (p = 0.043). After adjustment for age, weight, and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery category, each natural log increase in post-operative glial fibrillary acidic protein was significantly associated with a higher risk for subsequent acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio glial fibrillary acidic protein 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.59). Pre/post-operative levels of galectin 3, soluble suppression of tumorgenicity 2, and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide did not significantly differ between patients with and without acute kidney injury.
Higher plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein levels measured in the immediate post-operative period were independently associated with subsequent acute kidney injury in children after cardiopulmonary bypass. Elevated glial fibrillary acidic protein likely reflects intraoperative brain injury which may occur in the context of acute kidney injury-associated end-organ dysfunction.
To evaluate the association between novel pre- and post-operative biomarker levels and 30-day unplanned readmission or mortality after paediatric congenital heart surgery.
Children aged 18 years or younger undergoing congenital heart surgery (n = 162) at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled in the prospective cohort. Collected novel pre- and post-operative biomarkers include soluble suppression of tumorgenicity 2, galectin-3, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. A model based on clinical variables from the Society of Thoracic Surgery database was developed and evaluated against two augmented models.
Unplanned readmission or mortality within 30 days of cardiac surgery occurred among 21 (13%) children. The clinical model augmented with pre-operative biomarkers demonstrated a statistically significant improvement over the clinical model alone with a receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.754 (95% confidence interval: 0.65–0.86) compared to 0.617 (95% confidence interval: 0.47–0.76; p-value: 0.012). The clinical model augmented with pre- and post-operative biomarkers demonstrated a significant improvement over the clinical model alone, with a receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.802 (95% confidence interval: 0.72–0.89; p-value: 0.003).
Novel biomarkers add significant predictive value when assessing the likelihood of unplanned readmission or mortality after paediatric congenital heart surgery. Further exploration of the utility of these novel biomarkers during the pre- or post-operative period to identify early risk of mortality or readmission will aid in determining the clinical utility and application of these biomarkers into routine risk assessment.
This chapter describes crossover trials and their applications in neurology. Crossover trials could be used to study aspects of many common neurological disorders and psychiatric disorders. To illustrate the efficiency of crossover designs, the chapter presents sample size estimates for two placebo-controlled parallel and one crossover design for a trial examining the efficiency of donepezil in treating dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease. It also describes approaches to mitigate carryover effects. Alternatives to the 2 x 2 design are used to increase efficiency, provide unbiased estimates in the presence of carryover effects, and to compare more than two treatments. This chapter reviews response adaptive designs, matching and N of 1 trial along with several recent innovations in design. Simple carryover depends only on the treatment in the period prior to when carryover occurs. Crossover trials have logistical challenges beyond the careful planning and implementation that accompanies any successful clinical trial.