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Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalised skeletal muscle disorder associated with adverse outcomes. Ageing causes primary sarcopenia, while secondary causes include chronic kidney disease (CKD), long-term use of glucocorticoids and obesity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia using guidelines recommended by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP, 2010; EWGSOP2, 2018) and the Foundation of the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) and analyse the relationship between sarcopenia and body adiposity in adult renal transplant recipients (RTR). This was a cross-sectional study of adult RTR (BMI ≥ 18·5 kg/m2). Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometry. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) by CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The prevalence of sarcopenia in adult RTR (n 185; 57 % men, 50 (se 0·82) years and eGFR 55·80 (se 1·52) ml/min) was 7 % (FNIH), 11 % (EWGSOP2) and 17 % (EWGSOP). Low muscle mass, muscle function and physical performance affected, respectively, up to 28, 46 and 10 % of the participants. According to EWGSOP and EWGSOP2, body adiposity evaluated by anthropometry and DXA (percentage trunk fat) was lower in participants with sarcopenia. Conversely, according to the FNIH criteria, RTR with sarcopenia presented higher waist:height ratio. The present study suggests that adult RTR sarcopenia prevalence varies according to the diagnostic criteria; low muscle mass, low muscle function and low physical performance are common conditions; the association of body adiposity and sarcopenia depends on the criteria used to define this syndrome; and the FNIH criteria detected higher adiposity in individuals with sarcopenia.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) and its possible association with B12 dietary intake, body adiposity and immunosuppressive drugs. In this cross-sectional study, we included 225 KTR, aged 47·50 (sd 12·11) years, and 125 (56 %) were men. Serum levels of B12 were determined by chemiluminescent microparticle intrinsic factor assay and the cut-off of 200 pg/ml was used to stratify KTR into B12-sufficient or B12-deficient group. B12 dietary intake was evaluated by three 24 h dietary recalls and was considered adequate when ≥2·4 μg/d. Body adiposity was estimated after taking anthropometric measures and using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. B12 deficiency was seen in 14 % of the individuals. B12-deficient group, compared with the B12-sufficient group, exhibited lower intake of B12 (median 2·42 (interquartile range (IQR) 1·41–3·23) v. 3·16 (IQR 1·94–4·55) μg/d, P = 0·04) and higher values of waist circumference (median 96·0 (IQR 88·0–102·5) v. 90·0 (IQR 82·0–100·0) cm, P = 0·04). When the analysis included only women, B12 deficiency was associated with higher total and central body adiposity measurements obtained with anthropometry (BMI, body adiposity index, waist and neck circumferences) and DXA (total and trunk body fat). Among individuals with adequate intake of B12, the deficiency of this vitamin was more frequently seen in those using mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (17 %) v. azathioprine (2 %), P = 0·01. In conclusion, the prevalence of B12 deficiency in KTR was estimated as 14 % and was associated with reduced intake of B12 as well as higher adiposity, especially in women, and with the use of MMF.
Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also account for survey bias and imperfect detection through the use of a hierarchical modelling framework that separately estimates the species–environment response and detection process. This is particularly helpful for conservation applications and predictions for rare species, where data are often limited and prediction errors may have significant management consequences. Despite this potential importance, ISDMs remain largely untested under a variety of scenarios. We performed an exploration of key modelling decisions and assumptions on an ISDM using the endangered Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) as a test species. We found that site area had the strongest effect on the magnitude of population estimates and underlying intensity surface and was driven by estimates of model intercepts. Selecting a site area that accounted for the individual movements of the species within an average home range led to population estimates that coincided with expert estimates. ISDMs that do not account for the individual movements of species will likely lead to less accurate estimates of species intensity (number of individuals per unit area) and thus overall population estimates. This bias could be severe and highly detrimental to conservation actions if uninformed ISDMs are used to estimate global populations of threatened and data-deficient species, particularly those that lack natural history and movement information. However, the ISDM was consistently the most accurate model compared to other approaches, which demonstrates the importance of this new modelling framework and the ability to combine opportunistic data with systematic survey data. Thus, we recommend researchers use ISDMs with conservative movement information when estimating population sizes of rare and data-deficient species. ISDMs could be improved by using a similar parameterization to spatial capture–recapture models that explicitly incorporate animal movement as a model parameter, which would further remove the need for spatial subsampling prior to implementation.
Levamisole (Lms) is an anthelminthic drug with immunomodulatory activity. Chagas disease (CD) is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and there is very low access to the drugs available, benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox, both far from ideal. In a drug-repurposing strategy to test potential activity as antiparasitic and immunomodulatory agent for CD, Lms was assayed on acute T. cruzi murine infection, alone and in co-administration with Bz. During protocol standardization, 100 and 10 mpk of Bz given for five consecutive days resulted in parasitaemia suppression and 100% animal survival only with the highest dose. Flow cytometry showed that both optimal (100 mpk) and suboptimal (10 mpk) doses of Bz equally decreased the plasma levels of cytokines commonly elevated in this acute infection model. Lms alone (10–0.5 mpk) did not decrease parasitaemia nor mortality rates. Co-administration was investigated using the suboptimal dose of Bz and different doses of Lms. While Bz 10 mpk did not alter parasitaemia, the combo partially reduced it but only slightly promoted animal survival. This effect could be related to Th1-response modulation since interleukin-6 and interferon-γ were higher after treatment with the combo.
For more than four decades after the introduction of cv. Italia (Vitis vinifera L.) in Brazil, several somatic mutations in the genome of cv. Italia and its somatic mutants gave rise to phenotypes which generated at least five new cultivars of fine table grapes. Since no molecular marker proved to be effective in discriminating cv. Italia (V. vinifera L.) and its coloured mutants (Rubi, Benitaka, Brasil, Black Star), primers for the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences were developed to analyse Inter Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon-Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP), and investigate how the coloured cultivars derived from clonal propagations of somatic mutations are genetically structured. Primers for LTR sequences of IRAP and REMAP markers were edited from grape sequence databases available at a GenBank. Twenty-four primers, denominated DKS001–DKS024, were edited. Three hundred and forty-nine DNA segments were amplified by individual DKS primers and DKS/ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) primer combinations, at an average of 13.96 amplicons per primer pair. High genetic divergence between the five cultivars was inferred from polymorphism in retrotransposons IRAP and REMAP. The analysis of polymorphism of IRAP and REMAP retrotransposons was crucial to show that clonal propagation of somatic mutations may lead towards the formation of genetically divergent cultivars by the formation of genetically structured vineyards and show the mixture of genomes within each cultivar.
Because obesity is associated with many co-morbidities, including diabetes mellitus, this study evaluated the second-meal effect of a commercial prebiotic, inulin-type fructans, and the effects of the prebiotic on faecal microbiota, metabolites and bile acids (BA). Nine overweight beagles were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design to test a non-prebiotic control (cellulose) against a low (equivalent to 0·5 % diet) and high dose (equivalent to 1·0 % diet) of prebiotic over 14-d treatments. All dogs were fed the same diet twice daily, with treatments provided orally via gelatin capsules before meals. On days 13 or 14 of each period, fresh faecal samples were collected, dogs were fed at 08.00 hours and then challenged with 1 g/kg body weight of maltodextrin in place of the 16.00 hours meal. Repeated blood samples were analysed for glucose and hormone concentrations to determine postprandial incremental AUC (IAUC) data. Baseline glucose, insulin and active glucagon-like peptide-1 levels were similar between all groups (P>0·10). Glucose and insulin IAUC after glucose challenge appeared lower following the high dose, but did not reach statistical relevance. Prebiotic intervention resulted in an increase in relative abundance of some Firmicutes and a decrease in the relative abundance of some Proteobacteria. Individual and total faecal SCFA were significantly increased (P<0·05) following prebiotic supplementation. Total concentration of excreted faecal BA tended to increase in dogs fed the prebiotic (P=0·06). Our results indicate that higher doses of inulin-type prebiotics may serve as modulators of gut microbiota, metabolites and BA pool in overweight dogs.
To evaluate Ca intake and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors during childhood.
A cross-sectional study with a representative sample. Food consumption was assessed through three 24 h dietary recalls. Anthropometry, body composition and biochemical measurements were also conducted.
Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Children between 8 and 9 years old (n 350) enrolled in public and private schools in the urban area of the municipality of Viçosa.
Almost all children had inadequate intake of Ca (97·4 %), especially those with low income, non-white and who studied in public schools. Foods that contributed most to Ca intake were ‘milk’ and ‘cheeses and yoghurts’ (R2=0·66 and 0·13, respectively), and intake of ‘milk’ was correlated with ‘chocolate milk powder’ intake (r=0·538, P<0·01). Children with lower Ca intake had a higher prevalence of increased C-reactive protein (prevalence ratio=2·93; 95 % CI 1·21, 7·07), increased waist circumference (prevalence ratio=2·86; 95 % CI 1·01, 8·13) and a lower prevalence of high LDL cholesterol (prevalence ratio=0·64; 95 % CI 0·41, 0·99).
Lower Ca intake was associated with excess abdominal adiposity and subclinical inflammation in Brazilian children. Monitoring of adequate Ca intake is important, especially in poorer communities.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether access to a running wheel increases voluntary physical activity in adult female and male domestic cats. Eight neutered domestic shorthair male cats (mean age 8·6 (sd 0·05) years) and eleven intact domestic shorthair female cats (mean age 3·3 (sd 0·14) years) were group housed for 22 h daily and individually housed during the feeding period. Voluntary physical activity was measured using accelerometers. Experimental design consisted of 1 week of baseline physical activity measurement, followed by 3 weeks of wheel habituation, and 1 week of physical activity measurement post-wheel habituation. Female cat voluntary physical activity levels increased (P < 0·05) post-habituation during the dark period, resulting in an altered (P < 0·05) light:dark activity ratio, whereas male cat voluntary physical activity levels remained unchanged post-habituation. Food anticipatory activity did not differ pre- and post-habituation. However, it corresponded to a numerically greater proportion of daily physical activity for males (17·5 %) v. females (12 %). In general, female cats were more active than male cats. Habituation to a running wheel appears to be an effective method to increase voluntary physical activity of younger female cats. Thus, running wheels might be a potential strategy in the prevention or management of feline obesity.
Obesity in young adults is an increasing health problem in Australia and many other countries. Evidence-based information is needed to guide interventions that reduce the obesity-promoting elements in tertiary-education environments. In a food environmental audit survey, 252 outlets were audited across seven institutions: three universities and four technical and further education institutions campuses. A scoring instrument called the food environment-quality index was developed and used to assess all food outlets on these campuses. Information was collated on the availability, accessibility and promotion of foods and beverages and a composite score (maximum score=148; higher score indicates healthier outlets) was calculated. Each outlet and the overall campus were ranked into tertiles based on their ‘healthiness’. Differences in median scores for each outcome measure were compared between institutions and outlet types using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Scheffe’s testing, χ2 tests, Kruskal–Wallis H test and the Mann–Whitney U test. Binomial logistic regressions were used to compare the proportion of healthy v. unhealthy food categories across different types of outlets. Overall, the most frequently available items were sugar-sweetened beverages (20 % of all food/drink items) followed by chocolates (12 %), high-energy (>600 kJ/serve) foods (10 %), chips (10 %) and confectionery (10 %). Healthy food and beverages were observed to be less available, accessible and promoted than unhealthy options. The median score across all outlets was 72 (interquartile range=7). Tertiary-education food environments are dominated by high-energy, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. Interventions to decrease availability, accessibility and promotion of unhealthy foods are needed.
This casebook is the most extensive collection of documents ever assembled for the study of one of the famous battles in history. Here we see the Battle of Crécy across the cultural landscape of Europe — through chronicles and letters, through poems and prophecies, through sermons and laments — enabling us to understand the events of 26 August 1346 like never before. Together with other experts, the editors have gathered, edited, and translated over 80 fourteenth-century sources concerning this fascinating and important conflict — sources from Bohemia to France, from Italy to Wales — many here printed or translated for the first time. Original essays provide historical context and literary background to help interpret the battle in light of this new material. Among the discoveries: despite its fame, the location of the battle has been misidentified for centuries, and the actions of the men on both sides of the bloodied field have been completely misunderstood. This unparalleled accumulation of material means that the Battle of Crécy will never be seen the same again.
The Battle of Crécy is one of the most famous military engagements in history. Within the battle-torn context of the Hundred Years War, only Agincourt has carved so deeply in the national memories of England and France, and only Poitiers can rival it in its geo-political impact. Outnumbered, exhausted, and facing what should have been a decisively stronger force in arms, on 26 August 1346 the English achieved a resounding victory under the banner of King Edward III. It was a triumph that would not only earn its high place in history, but would also pass quickly into heroic legend and national myth. That much is not in doubt.
For all its obvious fame, however, there have long remained questions about what happened on that Saturday in August. Why did the French attack so late in the day? Why were the Genoese crossbowmen employed by the French so ineffective? Why did the French ride down their own men? Did the English longbow really determine this victory, as legend so often relates? How was the English position so unassailable? And where exactly did the battle take place?
In this book we will provide solutions to these and other lingering questions about the Battle of Crécy. Perhaps more vitally, we hope that by gathering together in one place the most important primary documents related to the event, we will provide future researchers with the means to question our answers and better fashion their own.
The introductory essay that follows this preface addresses the context of the Battle of Crécy — what Edward III was hoping to accomplish in France, and why this monumental engagement came to take place in such a seemingly unimportant location. Following this introduction is the core of the book: over 80 sources for the study of the battle, from eyewitness accounts to subsequent retellings in the succeeding generation. These sources are printed in their original languages alongside new translations. Following these are the combined textual and explanatory notes for the sources, among which are many discoveries.
Much of the remainder of the book is made up of 6 new essays that reveal some of our latest discoveries about the battle.