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The relationship between hospital antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance is poorly understood. We evaluated the association between antibiotic utilization and resistance in academic and community hospitals in Ontario, Canada.
We conducted a multicenter observational ecological study of 37 hospitals in 2014. Hospital antibiotic purchasing data were used as an indicator of antibiotic use, whereas antibiotic resistance data were extracted from hospital indexes of resistance. Multivariate regression was performed, with antibiotic susceptibility as the primary outcome, antibiotic consumption as the main predictor, and additional covariates of interest (ie, hospital type, laboratory standards, and patient days).
With resistance data representing more than 90,000 isolates, we found the increased antibiotic consumption in defined daily doses per 1,000 patient days (DDDs/1,000 PD) was associated with decreased antibiotic susceptibility for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (−0.162% per DDD/1,000 PD; P=.119). However, increased antibiotic consumption predicted increased antibiotic susceptibility significantly for Escherichia coli (0.173% per DDD/1,000 PD; P=.005), Klebsiella spp (0.124% per DDD/1,000 PD; P=.004), Enterobacter spp (0.194% per DDD/1,000 PD; P=.003), and Enterococcus spp (0.309% per DDD/1,000 PD; P=.001), and nonsignificantly for Staphylococcus aureus (0.012% per DDD/1,000 PD; P=.878). Hospital type (P=.797) and laboratory standard (P=.394) did not significantly predict antibiotic susceptibility, while increased hospital patient days generally predicted increased organism susceptibility (0.728% per 10,000 PD; P<.001).
We found that hospital-specific antibiotic usage was generally associated with increased, rather than decreased hospital antibiotic susceptibility. These findings may be explained by community origins for many hospital-diagnosed infections and practitioners choosing agents based on local antibiotic resistance patterns.
Optimal treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) in the elderly remains unclear. The impact of age on treatment planning, toxicity, and efficacy at a Canadian Cancer Centre was retrospectively reviewed.
Glioblastoma patients treated consecutively between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. Utilizing 70 years as the threshold for definition of an elderly patient, treatments and outcome were compared in younger and elderly populations.
Four hundred and twenty one patients were included in this analysis and median overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 9.8 months. 290 patients were aged <70 (median age 57, range 17–69) and 131 were aged ≥70 (median age 76, range 70–93). Patients ≥70 were more likely to receive best supportive care (BSC) and all patients >70 who were treated with radiotherapy received <60 Gy (P<0.001), except one. Patients aged >70 demonstrated inferior survival (one year OS 16% versus 54% for those <70, HR 3.46, P<0.001). In patients treated with BSC only, age had no impact on survival (median survival two months in both groups, HR 0.89, P=0.75). For those treated with higher doses of radiotherapy (>30 Gy to <60 Gy), one year survival was 19% versus 24% in patients aged >70 versus <70 (HR 1.47, P=0.02) respectively.
In this retrospective single institution series, elderly patients were more likely to be treated with BSC or palliative doses of radiotherapy. Randomized phase III study results are required for guidance in treatment of this population of patients.
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