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We describe the efficacy of enhanced infection control measures, including those recommended in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2012 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) toolkit, to control concurrent outbreaks of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB).
Before-after intervention study.
Fifteen-bed surgical trauma intensive care unit (ICU).
We investigated the impact of enhanced infection control measures in response to clusters of CPE and XDR-AB infections in an ICU from April 2009 to March 2010. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of blaKPC and resistance plasmids in CRE. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to assess XDR-AB clonality. Enhanced infection-control measures were implemented in response to ongoing transmission of CPE and a new outbreak of XDR-AB. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing the incidence rate (IR) of CPE and XDR-AB before and after the implementation of these measures.
The IR of CPE for the 12 months before the implementation of enhanced measures was 7.77 cases per 1,000 patient-days, whereas the IR of XDR-AB for the 3 months before implementation was 6.79 cases per 1,000 patient-days. All examined CPE shared endemic blaKPC resistance plasmids, and 6 of the 7 XDR-AB isolates were clonal. Following institution of enhanced infection control measures, the CPE IR decreased to 1.22 cases per 1,000 patient-days (P = .001), and no more cases of XDR-AB were identified.
Use of infection control measures described in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2012 CRE toolkit was associated with a reduction in the IR of CPE and an interruption in XDR-AB transmission.
To determine the frequency with which methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is spread from colonized or infected patients to their household and community contacts.
Retrospective cohort study.
Household and community contacts of MRSA-colonized or -infected patients for whom MRSA screening cultures were performed.
MRSA was isolated from 25 (14.5%) of 172 individuals. Among the contacts of index patients who had at least one MRSA-colonized contact, those with close contact to the index patient were 7.5 times more likely to be colonized (53% vs 7%; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 50.3; P = .002). An analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility and DNA fingerprint patterns suggested person-to-person spread.
MRSA colonization occurs frequently among household and community contacts of patients with nosocomially acquired MRSA, suggesting that transmission of nosocomially acquired MRSA outside of the healthcare setting may be a substantial source of MRSA colonization and infection in the community.
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