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Coffee and green tea are two of the most widely consumed hot beverages in the world. Their respective bioavailability has been studied separately, but absorption of their respective bioactive phenolics has not been compared. In a randomised cross-over design, nine healthy subjects drank instant coffee and green tea. Blood samples were collected over 12 h and at 24 h to assess return to baseline. After green tea consumption, ( − )-epigallocatechin (EGC) was the major catechin, appearing rapidly in the plasma; ( − )-EGC gallate (EGCg) and ( − )-epicatechin (EC) were also present, but ( − )-EC gallate and C were not detected. Dihydroferulic acid and dihydrocaffeic acid were the major metabolites that appeared after coffee consumption with a long time needed to reach maximum plasma concentration, suggesting metabolism and absorption in the colon. Other phenolic acid equivalents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA) and isoferulic acid (iFA)) were detected earlier, and they peaked at lower concentrations. Summations of the plasma area under the curves (AUC) for the measured metabolites showed 1·7-fold more coffee-derived phenolic acids than green tea-derived catechins (P = 0·0014). Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between coffee metabolites based on AUC. Inter-individual differences were observed, but individuals with a high level of CA also showed a correspondingly high level of FA. However, no such correlation was observed between the tea catechins and coffee phenolic acids. Correlation between AUC and maximum plasma concentration was also significant for CA, FA and iFA and for EGCg. This implies that the mechanisms of absorption for these two classes of compounds are different, and that a high absorber of phenolic acids is not necessarily a high absorber of catechins.
We have determined the absorption, conjugation and excretion of naringenin-7-O-rutinoside (narirutin) compared to the corresponding glucoside in an orange juice matrix in human subjects. Healthy volunteers (eight men and eight women), in a double blind, randomised, crossover study, consumed orange juice with (1) natural content of naringenin-7-O-rutinoside; (2) α-rhamnosidase-treated to yield naringenin-7-O-glucoside. Blood was sampled at twelve time points and three fractions of urine were collected over 24 h. The area under the plasma–time curve of naringenin from (2) α-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice was increased about 4-fold (P < 0·0001), peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 5·4-fold higher (P < 0·0001) and Tmax was decreased from 311 to 92 min (P = 0·002) compared to untreated orange juice (1), indicating a change in absorption site from the colon to the small intestine. Furthermore, the amount in urine was increased from 7 to 47 % (P < 0·0001) of the dose after consumption of the α-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice (2). All urine samples contained both naringenin-7- and -4′-O-glucuronides. In addition, to examine the effect of dose and α-rhamnosidase treatment on hesperetin conjugate profiles, a further treatment where (3) orange juice fortified with three times the original content of hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside was used. Five hesperetin metabolites (3′-O-glucuronide; 7-O-glucuronide; 5,7-O-diglucuronide; 3′,7-O-diglucuronide; 3′-O-sulphate) were present after all treatments (1–3), with the same profile of the conjugates. The present data show that bioavailability of naringenin is increased by conversion from rutinoside to glucoside, but the profile of the conjugates of flavanones formed and excreted in urine is neither affected by the absorption site nor by a 3-fold change in dose.
Thermoluminescence (TL) of La2O3 is reported for the first time. Novel La2O3 phosphor was obtained by solution combustion synthesis (SCS) in which a redox combustion process between lanthanum nitrate and urea at 500 °C is accomplished. The powder samples obtained were annealed at 900 °C during 2 h in air. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed the hexagonal phase of La2O3 for annealed powder samples. The TL glow curve obtained after exposure to beta radiation of these samples, displayed two maxima located at ˜ 101 °C and ˜ 200 °C, and a shoulder at ˜ 247 °C. Results from experiments such as dose response and fading showed that annealed La2O3 powder obtained by SCS is a promising material for radiation dosimetry applications.
Hesperidin (Hp), a citrus flavonoid predominantly found in oranges, shows bone-sparing effects in ovariectomised (OVX) animals. In human subjects, the bioavailability of Hp can be improved by the removal of the rhamnose group to yield hesperetin-7-glucoside (H-7-glc). The aim of the present work was to test whether H-7-glc was more bioavailable and therefore more effective than Hp in the prevention of bone loss in the OVX rat. Adult 6-month-old female Wistar rats were sham operated or OVX, then pair fed for 90 d a casein-based diet supplemented or not with freeze-dried orange juice enriched with Hp or H-7-glc at two dose equivalents of the hesperetin aglycone (0·25 and 0·5 %). In the rats fed 0·5 %, a reduction in OVX-induced bone loss was observed regarding total bone mineral density (BMD):+7·0 % in OVX rats treated with Hp (HpOVX) and +6·6 % in OVX rats treated with H-7-glc (H-7-glcOVX) v. OVX controls (P < 0·05). In the rats fed 0·25 % hesperetin equivalents, the H-7-glcOVX group showed a 6·6 % improvement in total femoral BMD v. the OVX controls (P < 0·05), whereas the Hp diet had no effect at this dose. The BMD of rats fed 0·25 % H-7-glc was equal to that of those given 0·5 % Hp, but was not further increased at 0·5 % H-7-glc. Plasma hesperetin levels and relative urinary excretion were significantly enhanced in the H-7-glc v. Hp groups, and the metabolite profile showed the absence of eriodictyol metabolites and increased levels of hesperetin sulphates. Taken together, improved bioavailability of H-7-glc may explain the more efficient bone protection of this compound.
The present study reports the activities of quercetin and its main circulating conjugates in man (quercetin-3′-sulphate (Q3′S) and quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G)) on in vivo angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and examines the effects of these molecules on cultured endothelial cells. We found opposing effects of quercetin and its metabolites on angiogenesis. While quercetin and Q3G inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial cell functions and angiogenesis, Q3′S per se promoted endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The inhibitory effect elicited by Q3G was linked to inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation elicited by VEGF. The activation of endothelial cells by Q3′S was associated to stimulation of VEGF receptor-2 and to downstream signalling activation (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt and nitric oxide synthase pathways), ultimately responsible for ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data indicate that the effects of circulating quercetin conjugates on angiogenesis are different depending on the nature of the conjugate. Q3G andQ3′S are the two major conjugates in plasma, but their ratio is dependenton several factors, so thatinhibition or activation of angiogenesis could be subtly shifted as a result of metabolismin vivo.
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