To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), initiated in 2001, has now become the largest twin registry in Asia. From 2015 to 2018, the CNTR continued to receive Chinese government funding and had recruited 61,566 twin-pairs by 2019 to study twins discordant for specific exposures such as environmental factors, and twins discordant for disease outcomes or measures of morbidity. Omic data, including genetics, genomics, metabolomics, and proteomics, and gut microbiome will be tested. The integration of omics and digital technologies in public health will advance our understanding of precision public health. This review introduces the updates of the CNTR, including study design, sample size, biobank, zygosity assessment, advances in research and future systems epidemiologic research.
Previous studies have shown that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet might contribute to managing risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but evidence is limited. We examined the association of DASH diet score (DASH-DS) with NAFLD, as well as the intermediary effects of serum retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum TAG, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and BMI.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Dietary data and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and the DASH-DS was then calculated. We assessed serum RBP4, hs-CRP and TAG and calculated HOMA-IR. The presence and degree of NAFLD were determined by abdominal sonography.
Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study participants, aged 40–75 years at baseline (n 3051).
After adjusting for potential covariates, we found an inverse association between DASH-DS and the presence of NAFLD (Ptrend = 0·009). The OR (95 % CI) of NAFLD for quintiles 2–5 were 0·78 (0·62, 0·98), 0·74 (0·59, 0·94), 0·69 (0·55, 0·86) and 0·77 (0·61, 0·97), respectively. Path analyses indicated that a higher DASH-DS was associated with lower serum RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI, which were positively associated with the degree of NAFLD.
Adherence to the DASH diet was independently associated with a marked lower prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults, especially in women and those without abdominal obesity, and might be mediated by reducing RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI.
The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAPs) were synthesized rapidly by the self-assembled dual-frequency ultrasonic method. The ultrasonic time and power effect on the morphology and phase composition of nHAPs were investigated through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) spectrometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which showed that the most uniform nanoparticles were obtained when the ultrasonic time was 30 min and the ultrasonic power was 280 W. Cytotoxicity and hemolysis tests showed that an indistinctive cytotoxic effect was within the concentration of 25–400 μg/mL and the hemolytic ratio was below 2.0% at concentration of 25–200 μg/mL, respectively, revealing a good biocompatibility of nHAPs. By loading tetracycline hydrochloride onto nHAPs spheres, the drug release results showed that the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were (26.34 ± 2.99)% and (52.68 ± 5.98)%, respectively. The drug-loaded sample shows a slow-release property, indicating that nHAPs may be promising as drug carriers.
Some recent studies examined the effect of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on depression and suicide. However, the results have been inconclusive.
To determine the overall relationship between PM exposure and depression/suicide in the general population.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-crossover and cohort studies to assess the association between PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less) or PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm) exposure and depression/suicide.
A total of 14 articles (7 for depression and 7 for suicide) with data from 684 859 participants were included in the meta-analysis. With a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 we found a 19% (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.19 [1.07, 1.33]) increased risk of depression and a marginally increased risk of suicide (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.05 [0.99, 1.11]) in the general population. We did not observe any significant associations between increasing exposure to PM10 and depression/suicide. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to determine the robustness of results. The strongest estimated effect of depression associated with PM2.5 appeared in a long-term lag pattern (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.25 [1.07, 1.45], P < 0.01) and cumulative lag pattern (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.26 [1.07, 1.48], P < 0.01).
The meta-analysis suggested that an increase in ambient PM2.5 concentration was strongly associated with increased depression risk in the general population, and the association appeared stronger at long-term lag and cumulative lag patterns, suggesting a potential cumulative exposure effect over time.
Animate stimuli are remembered better than inanimate stimuli. The proximate mechanism of this preferential retrieval of animate stimuli has not been clarified. The present study proposes an inhibitory control explanation for the advantage of the memory of animate stimuli. The retrieval practice paradigm is employed to examine the role of inhibitory control in animacy effect in two experiments. The results of Experiment 1 revealed a strong inhibitory effect on animate stimuli but was not reliable on inanimate stimuli, suggesting that animacy effect is not due to the insensitivity to the inhibitory control. The results of Experiment 2 show the absence of animacy effect when animacy is designed as a between-subject variable, suggesting that the memory of artifact may be influenced by the memory of animals. These findings are discussed using the inhibitory control account and suggest that the role of inhibitory control in animacy effect is to selectively inhibit the memory of other categories in order to facilitate the retrieval of animals, indicating that inhibitory control is, in part, responsible for the animacy effect.
We hypothesize that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may play a role in disturbing the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the striatal connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
We performed a longitudinal observation by combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and biochemical analyses to identify the abnormal striatal connectivity in MDD patients, and to evaluate the effect of TNF-α level on these abnormal connectivities during SSRI treatment. Eighty-five rs-fMRI scans were collected from 25 MDD patients and 35 healthy controls, and the scans were repeated for all the patients before and after a 6-week SSRI treatment. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectivity (FC) was calculated by correlating the rs-fMRI time courses between each voxel and the striatal seeds (i.e. spherical regions placed at the striatums). The level of TNF-α in serum was evaluated by Milliplex assay. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the interaction effects of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ in the regions with between-group FC difference.
Compared with controls, MDD patients showed significantly higher striatal FC in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and bilateral middle/superior temporal cortices before SSRI treatment (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Moreover, a significant interaction effect of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ was found in MPFC-striatum FC in MDD patients (p = 0.002), and the significance remained after adjusted for age, gender, head motion, and episode of disease.
These findings provide evidence that treatment-related brain connectivity change is dependent on the TNF-α level in MDD patients, and the MPFC-striatum connectivities possibly serve as an important target in the brain.
The regular solar observations are operated at Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS) since 1987, which make the construction of long-term magnetic field datasets available to understand solar magnetic field and cycles. There exist some inconveniences for solar physicist to use these data, because the data storage medium and format at HSOS experienced some changes. Additionally, the processes of magnetic field calibration are not easy to deal with for who are not familiar with these data. Here shows that the magnetic field of HSOS are further processed toward international standards, in order to explore HSOS observations data for scientific research.
This paper is concerned with the construction of high order mass-lumping finite elements on simplexes and a program for computing mass-lumping finite elements on triangles and tetrahedra. The polynomial spaces for mass-lumping finite elements, as proposed in the literature, are presented and discussed. In particular, the unisolvence problem of symmetric point-sets for the polynomial spaces used in mass-lumping elements is addressed, and an interesting property of the unisolvent symmetric point-sets is observed and discussed. Though its theoretical proof is still lacking, this property seems to be true in general, and it can greatly reduce the number of cases to consider in the computations of mass-lumping elements. A program for computing mass-lumping finite elements on triangles and tetrahedra, derived from the code for computing numerical quadrature rules presented in , is introduced. New mass-lumping finite elements on triangles found using this program with higher orders, namely 7, 8 and 9, than those available in the literature are reported.
In this study, a novel technique has been developed for the fabrication of uniform, stable, and strongly bonded graphene layers on microporous ceramic membranes. A composite ceramic-LIG membrane was obtained following one step scalable methodology. First, the ceramic support was spin-coated with poly (pyromellitic dianhydrideco-4,4´-oxidianiline, amic acid) (PMDA-ODA) and transformed to polyimide (PI) by thermal imidization. The PI was then irradiated with a CO2 laser to photothermally convert the sp3-carbon atoms to sp2-carbon atoms. Different PMDA-ODA layers were applied to achieve uniform coating by LIG on the membrane surface. The LIG was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and contact angle (CA) measurements. FTIR results showed a complete conversion of PMDA-ODA to PI following the thermal imidization reaction. The XRD results revealed the crystalline structure of graphene layer, which had a surface area of 130 ± 5.6 m2/g, determined by BET nitrogen adsorption. However, the permeability of uncoated ceramic membranes decreased with increasing number of PMDA-ODA layers, as evidenced by the clean water filtration experiments. The new composite membrane is a promising new material for membrane distillation or electro osmosis, where the hydrophobicity of the graphene layer may provide important advantages over current membrane materials.
A procedure is introduced to recognise sunspots automatically in solar full-disk photosphere images obtained from Huairou Solar Observing Station, National Astronomical Observatories of China. The images are first pre-processed through Gaussian algorithm. Sunspots are then recognised by the morphological Bot-hat operation and Otsu threshold. Wrong selection of sunspots is eliminated by a criterion of sunspot properties. Besides, in order to calculate the sunspots areas and the solar centre, the solar limb is extracted by a procedure using morphological closing and erosion operations and setting an adaptive threshold. Results of sunspot recognition reveal that the number of the sunspots detected by our procedure has a quite good agreement with the manual method. The sunspot recognition rate is 95% and error rate is 1.2%. The sunspot areas calculated by our method have high correlation (95%) with the area data from the United States Air Force/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USAF/NOAA).
Accumulating evidence suggests that altered immunity contributes to the
development of major depressive disorder (MDD).
To examine whether complement factor H (CFH), a regulator of activation
of the alternative pathway of the complement cascade, confers
susceptibility to MDD.
Expression analyses were tested in 53 unmedicated people with MDD and 55
healthy controls. A two-stage genetic association analysis was performed
in 3323 Han Chinese with or without MDD. Potential associations between
CFH single nucleotide polymorphisms and age at MDD
onset were evaluated.
CFH levels were significantly lower in the MDD group at
both protein and mRNA levels (P = 0.009 and
P = 0.014 respectively). A regulatory variant in the
CFH gene, rs1061170, showed statistically significant
genotypic and allelic differences between the MDD and control groups
(genotypic P = 0.0005, allelic P =
0.0001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that age at onset of MDD
was significantly associated with the C allele of
rs1061170 (log rank statistic χ2 = 6.82, P =
0.009). The C-allele carriers had a younger age at onset
of MDD (22.2 years, s.d. = 4.0) than those without the C
allele (23.6 years, s.d. = 4.3).
CFH is likely to play an important role in the
development of MDD. rs1061170 has an important effect on age at onset of
MDD in Han Chinese and may therefore be related to early pathogenesis of
MDD, although further study is needed.
SG-III laser facility is now the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion research in China. The whole laser facility can deliver 180 kJ energy and 60 TW power ultraviolet laser onto target, with power balance better than 10%. We review the laser system and introduce the SG-III laser performance here.
To understand the clinical epidemiology and molecular characteristics of human bocavirus (HBoV) infection in children with diarrhoea in Guangzhou, South China, we collected 1128 faecal specimens from children with diarrhoea from July 2010 to December 2012. HBoV and five other major enteric viruses were examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Human rotavirus (HRV) was the most prevalent pathogen, detected in 250 (22·2%) cases, followed by enteric adenovirus (EADV) in 76 (6·7%) cases, human astrovirus (HAstV) in 38 (3·4%) cases, HBoV in 17 (1·5%) cases, sapovirus (SaV) in 14 (1·2%) cases, and norovirus (NoV) in 9 (0·8%) cases. Co-infections were identified in 3·7% of the study population and 23·5% of HBoV-positive specimens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 14 HBoV strains to be clustered into species HBoV1 with only minor variations among them. Overall, the detection of HBoV appears to partially contribute to the overall detection gap for enteric infections, single HBoV infection rarely results in severe clinical outcomes, and HBoV sequencing data appears to support conserved genomes across strains identified in this study.
In this paper, a conventional Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS) alignment method on a disturbed base is analysed. A novel method with an attitude tracking idea is proposed for the rocking base alignment. It is considered in this method that the alignment algorithm should track the rocking base attitude real changes in the alignment process, but not excessively restrain disturbance. According to this idea, a rapid alignment algorithm is devised for the rocking base. In the algorithm, coarse alignment is carried out within 30 s in the inertial frame with alignment precision less than 2°, which meets Kalman filter linearization conditions well. Then a Kalman filter with ten state vectors and four measurement vectors is applied for the fine alignment to improve the capability of the algorithm in tracking the vehicle attitude. A turntable rotation experiment is carried out to validate the capability of the fine algorithm in tracing the large magnitude change during alignment. It is shown that the repeated alignment precision is about 0·04° by the alignment experiment on a rocking vehicle, with alignment time of 180 s. The Laser Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (LINS) ground navigation experiment suggests that the algorithm proposed by this paper can be satisfied without the need of high precision SINS alignment.
The high repetition rate 10 J/10 ns Yb:YAG laser system and its key techniques are reported. The amplifiers in this system have a multi-pass V-shape structure and the heat in the amplifiers is removed by means of laminar water flow. In the main amplifier, the laser is four-pass, and an approximately 8.5 J/1 Hz/10 ns output is achieved in the primary test. The far-field of the output beam is approximately 10 times the diffraction limit. Because of the higher levels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the main amplifier, the output energy is lower than expected. At the end we discuss some measures that can improve the properties of the laser system.
Several Gigantopithecus faunas associated with taxonomically undetermined hominoid fossils and/or stone artifacts are known from southern China. These faunas are particularly important for the study of the evolution of humans and other mammals in Asia. However, the geochronology of the Gigantopithecus faunas remains uncertain. In order to solve this problem, a program of geochronological studies of Gigantopithecus faunas in Guangxi Province was recently initiated. Chuifeng Cave is the first studied site, which yielded 92 Gigantopithecus blacki teeth associated with numerous other mammalian fossils. We carried out combined ESR/U-series dating of fossil teeth and sediment paleomagnetic studies. Our ESR results suggest that the lower layers at this cave can be dated to 1.92 ± 0.14 Ma and the upper layers can be dated to older than 1.38 ± 0.17 Ma. Correlation of the recognized magnetozones to the geomagnetic polarity timescale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and ESR data. The combined chronologies establish an Olduvai subchron (1.945–1.778 Ma) for the lowermost Chuifeng Cave sediments. We also analyzed the enamel δ13C values of the Gigantopithecus faunas. Our results show that southern China was dominated by C3 plants during the early Pleistocene and that the Gigantopithecus faunas lived in a woodland-forest ecosystem.
Monodominance in the tropics is often seen as an unusual phenomenon due to the normally high diversity in tropical rain forests. Here we studied Parashorea chinensis H. Wang (Dipterocarpaceae) in a seasonal tropical forest in south-west China, to elucidate the mechanisms behind its monodominance. Twenty-eight 20 × 20-m plots were established in monodominant and mixed forest in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan province. All individuals ≥1 cm stem diameter and 16 soil variables were measured. Parashorea chinensis forest had a significantly higher mean tree dbh compared with mixed forest. Diversity did not differ significantly between the two forest types. However, within monodominant patches, all diversity indices decreased with an increase in P. chinensis dominance. Floristic composition of P. chinensis forest did differ significantly from the mixed forest. These differences were associated with more fertile soils (significantly higher pH, Mn, K and lower carbon pools and C:N ratio) in the P. chinensis forest than the mixed forest. In contrast to current paradigms, this monodominant species is not associated with infertile, but with fertile soils. Parashorea chinensis seems to be especially associated with high manganese concentrations which it can tolerate, and with edaphic conditions (water, K) that allow this tall and exposed emergent species to maintain its water balance. This is in contrast with most previous studies on monodominance in the tropics that found either no effect of soil properties, or predict associations with nutrient-poor soils.