Heart failure in children is a complex disease process, which can occur secondary to a variety of aetiologies, including CHD, cardiomyopathy, or acquired conditions as well. Although the overall incidence of disease is low, the associated morbidity and mortality are high. Mortality may have decreased slightly over the last decade, and this is likely due to our ability to shepherd patients through longer periods of significant morbidity, with lasting effects. Costs of heart failure are significant – on the order of $1 billion annually as hospital charges for inpatient admissions alone. The value, or benefit to patient life and quality of life at this cost, is not well delineated. Further research is needed to optimise not only outcomes for these patients but also the high costs associated with them.