Conservation of rare ungulates requires reliable population size estimates and distribution maps for prioritizing investments and assessing the effectiveness of conservation measures. We used both camera trapping and a random encounter model approach, and faecal pellet group counts, to update the range and population size of the Bawean deer Axis kuhlii in the Bawean Island Nature Reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary, Indonesia. We studied 2-month periods to fulfil the assumption of population closure. Both methods provided similar population density estimates (higher in the dry season) of c. 227–416 individuals. The estimated range of the species is significantly narrower than previously reported. The main threats (habitat loss as a result of illegal logging, and disturbance by dogs and hunters) are ongoing. Based on these results we suggest that the species should retain its Critically Endangered status on the IUCN Red List.