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Understanding factors that are associated with more adaptive death attitudes and competencies can inspire future health-promoting palliative care strategies and inform approaches to training and development for health professionals. The potential importance of meaning, purpose, quality, and values in life for promoting adaptive death attitudes has been highlighted, but there is limited research in this area, particularly in relation to death competence. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to develop an understanding of demographic and life-related factors associated with perceived death competence, such as meaning in life and quality of life.
During the course enrollment period of a Massive-Online-Open-Course about death and dying, 277 participants completed questionnaires on death competence, meaning in life, quality of life, and sociodemographic background.
Findings indicated that greater presence of meaning in life, quality of life, age, death experience, and carer experience were each statistically significant unique predictors of death competence scores. Life-related variables were more strongly associated with death competence than demographic variables. Bereavement experience and experience caring for the dying was associated with greater death competence, but there were no differences on death competence between health professionals and the general community. Above all other factors, the presence of meaning in life was the strongest predictor of higher perceived competence in coping with death.
Significance of results
The findings demonstrate important interconnections between our attitudes about life and death. Knowledge of factors associated with poorer death competence may help identify those at risk of greater distress when facing death, and might prove useful additions to bereavement risk assessments. Understanding factors associated with greater death competence in health professionals and volunteers may help predict or prevent burnout and compassion fatigue, and help identify who would benefit from additional training and support. Future longitudinal studies including both health professionals and the general community are needed to determine the effect adaptive attitudes toward meaning in life can potentially have on bolstering subsequent adaptive coping and competence regarding death and dying.
A gap exists between the evidence for reducing risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) progression and its application in patients’ daily lives. We aimed to bridge this gap by identifying patient and family physician (FP) self-management priorities to conceptualize and develop a mobile-health application (m-health app). Our co-design approach combined priorities and concerns solicited from patients and FPs with evidence on risk of progression to design and develop a KOA self-management tool.
Parallel qualitative research of patient and FP perspectives was conducted to inform the co-design process. Researchers from the Enhancing Alberta Primary Care Research Networks (EnACT) evaluated the mental models of FPs using cognitive task analysis through structured interviews with four FPs. Using grounded theory methods, patient researchers from the Patient and Community Engagement Research (PaCER) program interviewed five patients to explore their perspectives about needs and interactions within primary care. In three co-design sessions relevant stakeholders (four patients, five FPs, and thirteen researchers) participated to: (i) identify user needs with regard to KOA self-management; and (ii) conceptualize and determine design priorities and functionalities of an m-health app using a modified nominal group process.
Priority measures for symptoms, activities, and quality of life from the user perspective were determined in the first two sessions. The third co-design session with our industry partner resulted in finalization of priorities through interactive patient and FP feedback. The top three features were: (i) a symptoms graph and summary; (ii) information and strategies; and (iii) setting goals. These features were used to inform the development of a minimum viable product.
The novel use of co-design created directive dialog around the needs of patients, highlighting the contrasting views that exist between patients and FPs and emphasizing how exploring these differences might lead to strong design options for patient-oriented m-health apps. Characterizing these disjunctions has important implications for operationalizing patient-centered health care.
Health and physical education encompasses the development of movement competence and health literacies crucial to child and adolescent health and wellbeing. Health and Physical Education: Preparing Educators for the Future, 2nd edition continues to offer a comprehensive overview of the knowledge, understanding, skills and theoretical underpinnings required to teach health and physical education in Australian schools. This edition outlines the latest developments to the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education, to help pre-service teacher educators understand the application of these concepts in practice. Maintaining a focus on the education of all learning ages, it provides a stronger focus on physical education and development in early childhood, and broader coverage of the perspectives of culturally diverse students. Well-structured and engaging, this edition has been updated to include the latest literature, figures, statistics and resources. Learning is enhanced through further reading, end-of-chapter questions, case studies and an updated and comprehensive companion website.
This white paper identifies knowledge gaps and new challenges in healthcare epidemiology research, assesses the progress made toward addressing research priorities, provides the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Committee's recommendations for high-priority research topics, and proposes a road map for making progress toward these goals. It updates the 2010 SHEA Research Committee document, “Charting the Course for the Future of Science in Healthcare Epidemiology: Results of a Survey of the Membership of SHEA,” which called for a national approach to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and a prioritized research agenda. This paper highlights recent studies that have advanced our understanding of HAIs, the establishment of the SHEA Research Network as a collaborative infrastructure to address research questions, prevention initiatives at state and national levels, changes in reporting and payment requirements, and new patterns in antimicrobial resistance.
By engaging with the text in this chapter, students will be able to:
understand the framework of this book and the overall focus of pre-service teacher education (PSTE) for physical education, health and wellbeing across the early childhood, primary and secondary levels of schooling
understand the different terms associated with PSTE, levels of schooling, and the inclusion of health and physical education in the Australian Curriculum
delineate the areas of physical education, sport, physical activity, and play and understand these are related but not synonymous terms
understand and apply the principles of social justice to health and physical education as covered by the Australian Curriculum
recognise and appreciate the relevance and impact pre-service teachers’ past school experiences have on their ability to transform physical education, health and wellbeing of all students throughout their teaching career.
Casey is 22 years of age and has been working with young children since she was 16. Her reputation has many families in her town vying for her babysitting services. The local preschool sought her out to work with them and now, some years later, she is gaining a formal early childhood qualification. Casey is starting to understand many aspects of child development from a disciplinary and research point of view, confirming and enhancing many of her experiential ‘real-life’ interactions with children in her centre.
Ashleigh is excited. She loves all the units of study in the primary school-aged curriculum. However, Ashleigh is feeling anxious about EDPE247, the Health and Physical Education Pedagogy unit in her PSTE degree. She remembers how in school she excelled in strategies to avoid participation in physical education classes.
Bill is in the secondary physical education PSTE program. Having been accepted into the program, Bill feels confident that his strong athletic background and excellent sporting achievements will make it easy for him to succeed. He feels that these are key to making a difference with his secondary school-aged students. His students need a strong, skilled, competent and enthusiastic teacher to lead them across the areas of physical education and sport.
By engaging with the text in this chapter students will be able to:
understand what assessment is and the purposes of assessment
acknowledge the imperative to develop assessment when developing units of work
describe the different types of assessment and how and when each type is used and why
clarify responsibilities and accountability in delivering, marking and reporting on assessment
discuss assessment issues that impact on health and physical education ethically and philosophically
understand the values and principles of high-quality assessment
understand the need to use assessment techniques that meet the needs of all students.
Caleb is a graduate appointed to his first teaching position in a school with many behaviour management issues. Three students in his class contribute to discussions, complete all the required activities, are polite and organised at all times and try really hard, but struggle in physical performance scenarios. The evidence of their learning, demonstrated through responses in assignments, tests and performances, is that it is low to average. Other students in the class are disorganised and impolite and do not cooperate in learning activities yet they are very competent in physical performance scenarios and produce good-quality responses that demonstrate high-level understanding of concepts in assignments and tests. Caleb would like to reward the effort of the three ‘good’ students by awarding them higher grades. Discuss the ethical, accountability and reporting dilemmas facing Caleb and what he should do.
By engaging with the text in this chapter, students will be able to:
describe the general capabilities framework in the new Australian Curriculum
apply the elements of the general capabilities framework to the health and physical education learning entitlement
understand how information and communication technology (ICT) can be effectively incorporated into health and physical education teaching and learning practice to support the learning of students with diverse needs
describe social justice principles relevant to access to ICT in terms of gender, ability, social class and ethnicity.
Casey is in her first year of teaching at the local early childhood centre. The director of the centre has called a meeting to discuss the implications of the impending Australian Curriculum. The centre will be required to encourage the children to be literate across a range of areas. Casey recalls her pre-service teacher educator presented many different approaches to teaching health and physical education, but she didn’t see many ways of modelling how to use ICT for the young children in the preschool. In fact, screen time was noted as a factor in the increasing levels of overweight and obesity among children. How can play be accommodated with ICT? Alternatively, how can ICT progress children’s development around the issue of play?
Jennie has been working with Year 4 this year. Although some sporty children are in her class, the gap is widening between the skilled and those disinterested in the game play. Jennie is seeking new ways of teaching physical education to close this gap in students’ attitudes and skill levels and avoid as much as possible the behaviour management challenges arising in her active lessons. How can she incorporate ICT into her teaching to engage the disinterested and poorly skilled? Is that possible or will ‘PE’ be just a ‘busy, happy, fun’ alternative to engaging students in the challenge of skill acquisition?
By engaging with the text in this chapter, students will be able to:
understand the purpose of the curriculum and how it is utilised in teaching and learning
understand what informs planning for teaching and learning
recognise the relationship between yearly plans or scope and sequence, teaching programs, unit plans and lesson plans
know how to develop yearly plans and write unit overviews and lesson plans
achieve a balance of curriculum and activities in planning, teaching and learning
address student needs and interests in the planning process
create units of work and lessons that are inclusive and cater for diverse needs.
Lily is undertaking her internship in a large coeducational city school. Her mentor teacher has told her she can teach the Nutrition unit with Year 9 and Relationships with Year 7 in the Health Education unit, and ‘just pick something you like for practical lessons’. There is no work program based on the current curriculum for Years 7–10 and there are no unit overviews. She asks her mentor what the students have done before and he says swimming, cricket, soccer and touch. On the day of her visit to the school she has the opportunity to chat with some non-participants about health and physical education. She discovers that they dislike the subject because they ‘always do the same sports and every year they learn the same stuff in Health Education’. Each class has two lessons per week of ‘practical’ and one lesson of ‘theory’. Lily would like to try some new activities to engage the disengaged in movement and physical activities and to revitalise interest in health education. She asks her mentor if it is possible for her to teach European handball, dance and ultimate disc and if it is alright for her to make up her own titles for the Health Ed units and to teach some of the Relationships unit through physical activity. He says yes but is sceptical about the level of student interest in dance. This chapter explores the steps Lily must take when planning her units of work, considers the documents she needs to refer to, and discusses the human, material and information resources she needs to consider and access.