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Gonorrhoea cases in women have been rising in Australia in the 2010s but the cause of the increase is not well understood. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the characteristics of genital gonorrhoea infection in women attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Gonorrhoea cases were diagnosed by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and/or culture. Genitourinary specimens were obtained in 12 869 clinic visits in women aged 16 years or above between August 2017 and August 2018. Genital gonorrhoea was detected in 142 (1.1%) of the visits. Almost half of the cases were asymptomatic, 47.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.8–56.1%]; yellow, green or pus-like vaginal discharge was present in 11.3% (95% CI 7.0–17.6%) and other genital symptoms in 40.8% (95% CI 33.1–49.1%) of the cases. The mean time between last sexual contact and onset of symptoms was 7.3 days and between the onset of symptoms to presentation to the clinic was 12.1 days. Half of the cases of genital gonorrhoea among women are asymptomatic and these cases would have been missed by testing of only symptomatic women. Further epidemiological and behavioural research is required to understand the temporal changes in sexual practices among women in Australia.
To assess the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and other energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods in two Southern low-income communities targeted by the Balance Calories Initiative, a campaign by the top-three American beverage companies intended to reduce the consumption of sugary beverages by 20 % over 10 years.
We conducted self-administered intercept surveys in front of food retail outlets between August and November 2016. We recruited adults with children <18 years living at home and adolescents aged 10–17 years with parental consent.
Retail food outlets in Mississippi and Alabama, USA.
Adults (n 11 311) and adolescents (n 3460).
The percentage of high SSB consumers (≥4 servings/d) was 40·9 % among adult males, 32·3 % among adult females, 43·0 % among adolescent males and 34·4 % among adolescent females (male – female difference, P < 0·0001). In aggregate, respondents also reported consuming a mean of 3 servings of salty snacks, cookies and/or candy in the past 24 h, with adolescent males reporting 4 servings.
SSB should be a primary target of future interventions to improve dietary intake, but EDNP foods likely contribute as many daily kilojoules as SSB among this population. Future campaigns should aim to limit the consumption of all EDNP foods.
We used differential time to positivity between central and peripheral blood cultures to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of the National Healthcare Safety Network central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) surveillance definition among hematology patients with febrile neutropenia. The PPV was 27.7%, which suggests that, when the definition is applied to this population, CLABSI rates will be substantially overestimated.
An outbreak of measles in another region of New Zealand prompted our organization to review the measles immunity of healthcare workers. Some studies suggest that age-specific immunity cannot be assumed. In our local setting, however, we found that 893 (98%) of 912 healthcare workers more than 40 years old tested seropositive for measles immunoglobulin G.
Vancomycin prophylaxis for coronary artery bypass graft surgery without prosthetic valve implantation voluntarily decreased from 94% to 18% in one medical center. Median hospital stay (10 vs 9 days, P=.30) and number of postoperative infections (17.0% vs 14.3%, P=.60) did not differ among patients who received vancomycin and those who did not.
In recent years both the prevalence and duration of breast-feeding have decreased, especially in urban areas of the developing world (McCann et al., 1981). While the majority of births in these areas continue to be attended by traditional birth attendants, the proportion of mothers giving birth in hospitals is increasing. The potential for hospital personnel and practices to affect infant feeding preferences is likely to increase as the trend towards hospital births continues.
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