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To identify most commonly consumed foods by adolescents contributing to percentage of total energy, added sugars, SFA, Na and total gram intake per day.
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014.
NHANES is a cross-sectional study nationally representative of the US population.
One 24 h dietary recall was used to assess dietary intake of 3156 adolescents aged 10–19 years. What We Eat in America food category classification system was used for all foods consumed. Food sources of energy, added sugars, SFA, Na and total gram amount consumed were sample-weighted and ranked based on percentage contribution to intake of total amount.
Three-highest ranked food subgroup sources of total energy consumed were: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB; 7·8 %); sweet bakery products (6·9 %); mixed dishes – pizza (6·6 %). Highest ranked food sources of total gram amount consumed were: plain water (33·1 %); SSB (15·8 %); milk (7·2 %). Three highest ranked food sources of total Na were: mixed dishes – pizza (8·7 %); mixed dishes – Mexican (6·7 %); cured meats/poultry (6·6 %). Three highest ranked food sources of SFA were: mixed dishes – pizza (9·1 %); sweet bakery products (8·3 %); mixed dishes – Mexican (7·9 %). Three highest ranked food sources of added sugars were: SSB (42·1 %); sweet bakery products (12·1 %); coffee and tea (7·6 %).
Identifying current food sources of percentage energy, nutrients to limit and total gram amount consumed among US adolescents is critical for designing strategies to help them meet nutrient recommendations within energy needs.
To model effective vegetable parenting practices using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices construct scales.
An Internet survey was conducted with parents of pre-school children to assess their agreement with effective vegetable parenting practices and Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices items. Block regression modelling was conducted using the composite score of effective vegetable parenting practices scales as the outcome variable and the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices constructs as predictors in separate and sequential blocks: demographics, intention, desire (intrinsic motivation), perceived barriers, autonomy, relatedness, self-efficacy, habit, anticipated emotions, perceived behavioural control, attitudes and lastly norms. Backward deletion was employed at the end for any variable not significant at P<0·05.
Houston, TX, USA.
Three hundred and seven parents (mostly mothers) of pre-school children.
Significant predictors in the final model in order of relationship strength included habit of active child involvement in vegetable selection, habit of positive vegetable communications, respondent not liking vegetables, habit of keeping a positive vegetable environment and perceived behavioural control of having a positive influence on child’s vegetable consumption. The final model’s adjusted R2 was 0·486.
This was the first study to test scales from a behavioural model to predict effective vegetable parenting practices. Further research needs to assess these Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices scales for their (i) predictiveness of child consumption of vegetables in longitudinal samples and (ii) utility in guiding design of vegetable parenting practices interventions.
Increasing a parent’s ability to influence a child’s vegetable intake may require reducing the parent’s use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices. The present study was designed to understand the psychosocial influences on ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted to model use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices using validated scales from a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices.
The dependent variable was a composite ineffective vegetable parenting practices index. The independent variables included validated subscales of intention, habit, perceived barriers, desire, competence, autonomy, relatedness, attitudes, norms, perceived behavioural control and anticipated emotions. Models were analysed using block regression with backward deletion.
Parents of 307 pre-school children (3–5 years old).
Variables significantly positively related to ineffective vegetable parenting practices in order of relationship strength included habit of controlling vegetable practices (standardized β=0·349, P<0·0001) and desire (standardized β=0·117, P=0·025). Variables significantly negatively related to ineffective vegetable parenting practices in order of relationship strength included perceived behavioural control of negative parenting practices (standardized β=–0·215, P<0000), the habit of active child involvement in vegetable selection (standardized β=–0·142, P=0·008), anticipated negative parent emotional response to child vegetable refusal (standardized β=–0·133, P=0·009), autonomy (standardized β=–0·118, P=0.014), attitude about negative effects of vegetables (standardized β=–0·118, P=0·015) and descriptive norms (standardized β=–0·103, P=0·032). The model accounted for 40·5 % of the variance in use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
The present study is the first report of psychometrically tested scales to predict use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices. Innovative intervention procedures will need to be designed and tested to reduce ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
To test the effect of image size and presence of size cues on the accuracy of portion size estimation by children.
Children were randomly assigned to seeing images with or without food size cues (utensils and checked tablecloth) and were presented with sixteen food models (foods commonly eaten by children) in varying portion sizes, one at a time. They estimated each food model’s portion size by selecting a digital food image. The same food images were presented in two ways: (i) as small, graduated portion size images all on one screen or (ii) by scrolling across large, graduated portion size images, one per sequential screen.
Laboratory-based with computer and food models.
Volunteer multi-ethnic sample of 120 children, equally distributed by gender and ages (8 to 13 years) in 2008–2009.
Average percentage of correctly classified foods was 60·3 %. There were no differences in accuracy by any design factor or demographic characteristic. Multiple small pictures on the screen at once took half the time to estimate portion size compared with scrolling through large pictures. Larger pictures had more overestimation of size.
Multiple images of successively larger portion sizes of a food on one computer screen facilitated quicker portion size responses with no decrease in accuracy. This is the method of choice for portion size estimation on a computer.
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