Documentation of on-farm sustainability in agricultural sectors is becoming an essential element to ensure market access. An assessment process was developed to help soybean farmers document practices and verifiable advances in community, environmental and economic sustainability. Technical difficulties in analyzing and summarizing such assessment data include a large number of practices, correlation in variables, and use of discrete measures. By combining non-negative principal components analysis and common-weight data envelopment analysis, we overcame these difficulties to calculate a composite sustainability index for each individual farm and for the farm group as a whole. Applying this method to assessment data from 410 US Midwestern soybean farmers gave average sustainability scores of 0.846 and 0.842 for the soybean-specific and whole-farm assessments, respectively. Scenario analysis examined the impact if the bottom 10% of growers adopted the top ten sustainability drivers identified by the analysis. The average sustainability score only increased by 2%, but the minimum score increased from 0.515 to 0.647 for the soybean-specific assessment, and from 0.624 to 0.685 for the whole-farm assessment, while the lowest 10th percentile increased from 0.635 to 0.819 for the soybean-specific assessment, and from 0.634 to 0.920 for the whole-farm assessment. These results suggest that significant advancements could be made through focused efforts to improve adoption of sustainable practices by soybean farmers at the lower end of the spectrum.