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We sought to assess the presence and reporting quality of peer-reviewed literature concerning the accuracy, precision, and reliability of home monitoring technologies for vital signs and glucose determinations in older adult populations.
A narrative literature review was undertaken searching the databases Medline, Embase, and Compendex. Peer-reviewed publications with keywords related to vital signs, monitoring devices and technologies, independent living, and older adults were searched. Publications between the years 2012 and 2018 were included. Two reviewers independently conducted title and abstract screening, and four reviewers independently undertook full-text screening and data extraction with all disagreements resolved through discussion and consensus.
Two hundred nine articles were included. Our review showed limited assessment and low-quality reporting of evidence concerning the accuracy, precision, and reliability of home monitoring technologies. Of 209 articles describing a relevant device, only 45 percent (n = 95) provided a citation or some evidence to support their validation claim. Of forty-eight articles that described the use of a comparator device, 65 percent (n = 31) used low-quality statistical methods, 23 percent (n = 11) used moderate-quality statistical methods, and only 12 percent (n = 6) used high-quality statistical methods.
Our review found that current validity claims were based on low-quality assessments that do not provide the necessary confidence needed by clinicians for medical decision-making purposes. This narrative review highlights the need for standardized health technology reporting to increase health practitioner confidence in these devices, support the appropriate adoption of such devices within the healthcare system, and improve health outcomes.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary live yeast (LY) supplementation on growth, intestinal permeability and immunological parameters of piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC). Piglets weaned at 21 d were allocated into three treatments with six pens and six piglets per pen, receiving the control diet (CON), diets supplemented with antibiotics plus zinc oxide (ANT–ZnO) and LY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CNCM I-4407), respectively, for a period of 2 weeks. On day 8, thirty-six piglets were selected as control without ETEC (CON), CON–ETEC, ANT–ZnO–ETEC and LY–ETEC groups challenged with ETEC until day 10 for sample collections. Piglets fed ANT–ZnO diet had the highest average daily gain and average daily feed intake (P<0·05) during the 1st week, but ADG of piglets fed the ANT–ZnO diet was similar as piglets fed LY diet during the second week. Piglets with LY–ETEC or ANT–ZnO–ETEC had markedly lower diarrhoea score (P<0·05) than piglets with CON–ETEC during the 24 h after ETEC challenge. Relative to piglets with CON, the counts of E. coli, urinary ratio of lactulose to mannitol, plasma IL-6 concentration, mRNA abundances of innate immunity-related genes in ileum and mesenteric lymph node tissues were increased (P<0·05), whereas the villous height of jejunum and relative protein expression of ileum claudin-1 were decreased (P<0·05) in piglets with CON–ETEC; however, these parameters did not markedly change in piglets with LY–ETEC or ANT–ZnO–ETEC. In summary, dietary LY supplementation could alleviate the severity of diarrhoea in piglets with ETEC, which may be associated with the improved permeability, innate immunity and bacterial profile.
Open clusters (OCs) are important objects for stellar dynamics studies. The short survival timescale of OCs makes them closely related to the formation of Galactic field stars. We motivate to investigate the dynamical evolution of OCs on the aspect of internal effect and the external influence. Firstly, we make use of the known OC catalog to obtain OCs masses, effective radii. Additionally, we estimate OCs kinematics properties by OC members cross-matched with radial velocity and metallicity from SDSSIV/APOGEE2. We then establish the fundamental plane of OCs based on the radial velocity dispersion, the effective radius, and average surface brightness. The deviation of the fundamental plane from the Virial Plane, so called the tilt, and the r.m.s. dispersion of OCs around the average plane are used to indicate the dynamical status of OCs. Parameters of the fitted plane will vary with cluster age and distance.
Based on the analyses of Call K line profiles of 12 solar flares, the characteristics of the red asymmetry of Call K line are summarized. Non-LTE calculations indicated that a downward motion of plasma above the temperature minimum region (TMR) as well as a contracting motion of plasma toward TMR can well explain the red asymmetry observed at the Ki positions. The typical velocity is 10-30 km s−1. This result is consistent with the observations of metallic lines of solar flares.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
The instabilities and transitions of flow in a vertical cylindrical cavity with heated bottom, cooled top and insulated sidewall are investigated by linear stability analysis. The stability boundaries for the axisymmetric flow are derived for Prandtl numbers from 0.02 to 1, for aspect ratio () equal to 1, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, respectively. We found that there still exists stable non-trivial axisymmetric flow beyond the second bifurcation in certain ranges of Prandtl number for , and 0.8, excluding the case. The finding for is that very frequent changes of critical mode (azimuthal Fourier mode) of the second bifurcation occur when the Prandtl number is changed, where five kinds of steady modes and three kinds of oscillatory modes are presented. These multiple modes indicate different flow structures triggered at the transitions. The instability mechanism of the flow is explained by kinetic energy transfer analysis, which shows that the radial or axial shear of base flow combined with buoyancy mechanism leads to the instability results.
The trend toward smaller dimensions in integrated circuit technology presents severe physical and engineering challenges for ion implantation. These challenges, together with the need for physically-based models at exceedingly small dimensions, are leading to a new level of understanding of fundamental defect science in silicon. Recently the DOE Council on Materials requested that our panel examine the current status and future research opportunities in the area of ion beams in semiconductor processing. Particularly interesting are the emerging approaches to defect and dopant distribution modeling, transient enhanced diffusion, high energy implantation and defect accumulation, and metal impurity gettering. These topics were explored both from the perspective of the emerging science issues and the technology challenges.
Tight-binding molecular dynamics (TBMD) simulations are performed (i) to evaluate the formation and binding energies of point defects and defect clusters, (ii) to compute the diffusivity of self-interstitial and vacancy in crystalline silicon, and (iii) to characterize the diffusion path and mechanism at the atomistic level. In addition, the interaction between individual defects and their clustering is investigated.
We performed molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the process of defect production in pure vanadium. The interaction of atoms was described by the EAM interatomic potential modified at short range to merge smoothly with the universal potential for description of the high energy recoils in cascades. The melting point of this EAM model of vanadium was found to be consistent with the experimental melting temperature. The threshold energies of displacement events in the model system are also consistent with experimental minimum threshold in vanadium, and its average was found to be 44 eV. We evaluated the efficiencies of defect production in the displacement events initiated by recoils with kinetic energy up to 5 keV, and found that the probability of cluster formation is smaller than that of simulated events in fee metals reported in the literature.
We have studied the ion bombardment induced amorphous-to-crystal transition in silicon using molecular dynamics techniques. The growth of small crystal seeds embedded in the amorphous phase has been monitored for several temperatures in order to get information on the effect of the thermal temperature increase introduced by the incoming ion. The role of ion-induced defects on the growth has been also studied.
We present results of multiple-time-scale simulations of 5, 10 and 15 keV low temperature ion implantation of arsenic on silicon (100), followed by high temperature anneals. The simulations start with a molecular dynamics (MD) calculation of the primary state of damage after l0ps. The results are then coupled to a kinetic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of bulk defect diffusion and clustering. Dose accumulation is achieved considering that at low temperatures the damage produced in the lattice is stable. After the desired dose is accumulated, the system is annealed at 800 °C for several seconds. The results provide information on the evolution for the damage microstructure over macroscopic length and time scales and affords direct comparison to experimental results. We discuss the database of inputs to the MC model and how it affects the diffusion process.
We investigate the electronic structure and stability of GaAs1–xNx alloys for several compositions, using state-of-the-art first-principles total-energy calculations. We consider several ordered structures, and in addition we address the case of low-dimensional structures, such as zero-dimensional point defects (NAs in GaAs). Our results reveal two rem ark-able features of this alloy system: (i) a very large bowing of the band gap (the system may even become metallic for compositions around x = 0.5) and (ii) a very limited miscibility. Both properties are related to a distinctive property of this alloy system: a more than 20% lattice mismatch between GaAs and GaN.
Advanced CMOS substrates composed of ultra-thin strained-Si and SiGe-on-insulator were fabricated, combining both the benefits of high-mobility strained-Si and SOI. Our pioneering method employed wafer bonding of SiGe virtual substrates (with strained-Si layers) to oxidized handle wafers. Layer transfer onto insulating handle wafers can be accomplished using grind-etchback or delamination via implantation. Both methods were found to produce a rough transferred layer, but polishing is unacceptable due to non-uniform material removal across the wafer and the lack of precise control over the final layer thickness. To solve these problems, a strained-Si stop layer was incorporated into the bonding structure. After layer transfer, excess SiGe was removed using a selective etch process, stopping on the strained-Si. Within the context of ultra-thin SSOI and SGOI fabrication, this paper describes recent improvements including metastable stop layers, low temperature wafer bonding, and improved selective SiGe removal.
The characteristics of ultra shallow B implantation with mass-analyzed decaborane cluster ions (B10Hx+) are presented. Depth profiles of B and co-implanted H were measured by SIMS, before and after annealing. Annealing results in the increase in the depth of B distribution, due to diffusion, but most of H diffuses out of Si. While the sputtering yield of Si per incoming B in a cluster was found to be comparable to the estimated sputtering yield of Si with B+ ions of the equivalent energy (∼ 1.2 keV), the surface effects of the two types of ions may be quite different. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the smoothing effect of the small decaborane cluster ions, observed previously by us on a surface of amorphous Si, is also present on crystalline Si and even on a much rougher surface of polycrystalline Ta film. The smoothing affects different parts of the power density spectra as functions of spatial frequency in the amorphous and crystalline materials. The smoothing on c-Si surfaces is in sharp contrast to roughening of these surfaces by irradiation with monomer Ar ions, which was done for reference. This indicates that different ion-surface interaction mechanisms are needed to describe impacts of cluster and of monomer ions. All other effects of Si implantation with B10Hx+ measured to date were found to be the same as those with B+ ions of equivalent energy and dose, which confirms that decaborane implantation is an alternative to the very low energy B implantation for ultra shallow p-type junctions in Si devices.
Aluminum Nitride (AIN) is a promising material for a variety of technological applications because it has many exceptional properties, such as wide band gap (WBG) and negative electron affinity (NEA). AIN thin films were prepared by Reactive Ion Beam Coating. The properties of the AIN thin films may be a function of one of the preparation conditions: the beam energy. We used the non-Rutherford backscattering (non-RBS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) results to analyze the composition of the AIN thin films. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was applied to study the morphology of films. On the other hand, electron field emission properties were also studied to find the relationship between the compositional, morphological and electron field emission properties of the AIN thin films.
The objective of this study was to determine if insulin–transferrin–selenium (ITS) promoted a nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes that better supports subsequent embryonic development. The rate of oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) in an experimental group treated with hormones for 42 h was significantly increased compared with that in a control group without hormone treatment (47.8% vs. 11.7%, respectively, p < 0.05). Following reduction of the hormone treatment period from 42 h to 21 h, which included both the first 21 h period of hormones treatment (45.4%) and the second 21 h period of hormone treatment (44.8%), the rate of oocyte IVM was still higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). To improve porcine oocyte nuclear maturation, 1% ITS was added to medium supplemented with hormones. The rate of nuclear maturation in the ITS-treated group was significantly higher than in the ITS-untreated group (78.6% vs. 54.4%, respectively, p < 0.05). ITS treatment also significantly reduced the per cent of oocytes with type I and type III cortical granule (CG) distribution, respectively, and significantly increased the per cent of oocytes with type II CG distribution (85.3%). These observations indicated that the synchronization rates of nuclear and ooplasmic maturation reached 67.04% (78.56 × 85.33%). In conclusion, the combination of modified Tissue Culture Medium-199 (mM199) + 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF) + 10 IU/ml pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) + 10 IU/ml human chorion gonadotrophin (hCG) + 2.5 IU/ml follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) + 1% ITS is suitable for culturing porcine oocytes in vitro, and effectively enhances porcine oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation.