The aim of this study was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation and maintaining vitamin D sufficiency are associated with changes in inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and vitamin D deficiency. A total of 413 participants with symptomatic knee OA and vitamin D deficiency were enrolled in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial and received 1·25 mg vitamin D3 or placebo monthly for 24 months across two sites. In this post hoc analysis, 200 participants from one site (ninety-four from the placebo group and 106 from the vitamin D group; mean age 63·1 (sd 7·3) years, 53·3 % women) were randomly selected for measurement of serum levels of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers at baseline and 24 months using immunoassays. In addition, participants were classified into two groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels at months 3 and 24: (1) not consistently sufficient (25(OH)D≤50 nmol/l at either month 3 or 24, n 61), and (2) consistently sufficient (25(OH)D>50 nmol/l at both months 3 and 24, n 139). Compared with placebo, vitamin D supplementation had no significant effect on change in serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, adipsin and apelin. Being consistently vitamin D sufficient over 2 years was also not associated with changes in these biomarkers compared with not being consistently sufficient. Vitamin D supplementation and maintaining vitamin D sufficiency did not alter serum levels of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers over 2 years in knee OA patients who were vitamin D insufficient, suggesting that they may not affect systemic inflammation in knee OA patients.