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The second order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of two different ionic selfassembled multilayer (ISAM) films combined with Ag nanoparticles have been investigated. The plasmon resonances in the Ag particles concentrate the incident light, markedly increasing in the NLO efficiencies of the films. We find that the efficiency enhancement is significantly larger in conventional ISAM films compared to films made using a hybrid covalent ISAM technique (HCISAM), even though the intrinsic bulk second order non-linear susceptibility (χ(2)) is much larger for HCISAM films. We attribute this to the interfaces in HCISAM films being much easier to disrupt by external perturbations such as the metal deposition by which the nanoparticles are fabricated. We conclude that because the plasmon decay length is very short, the plasmonic enhancement of NLO effects primarily occurs at and near the film-particle interface. To discern the importance of the interfaces, we surrounded thin ISAM and HCISAM films with NLOinactive buffer layers, which confirmed this hypothesis, particularly in the case of HCISAM films.
The antimalarial drug artemisinin (ART) is commercially extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Here, we report the screening of 70 A. annua plants representing 14 diverse germplasm accessions sourced from around the world, and identify lines containing >2% ART. These extremely high-yielding individuals have been maintained as vegetative clones, and they represent promising germplasm resources for future A. annua breeding programmes.
A 2,3-dibutoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene comonomer was incorporated into a distyrylbenzene derivative 11. Novel 1,2-disubstituted-3,6-dibromobenzene comonomers 15 and 18 were prepared by directed metallation. Copolymerization of 11with a 9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diboronate ester 1 yielded a green fluorescent polymer while copolymerization of 15 and 18 with the 9,9-dihexylfluorene-2,7-diboronate 22 afforded promising blue fluorescent polymers 23 and 24 respectively.
A method of achieving total dielectric isolation (TDI) of device islands (or larger areas) using ion beam synthesis to form a continuous but non planar layer of SiO2 is described. The technique involves implantation through a patterned masking layer in which windows have been opened to define the dimensions and location of the islands. TDI structures have been successfully formed in annealed (1300°C, 5 hours) wafers implanted with a dose of 2.2 x 1018 O+ cm2 at 200 keV, using a thermal oxide mask of thickness 4750 Å.
I WOULD LIKE TO FOCUS ON THREE TOPICS. THE FIRST RELATES to some personal perspectives on the role of lawyers in the formulation of American foreign policy. The second compares L's experience in connection with Grenada and Nicaragua, two instances involving United States use of force. And the third comments on L's experiences in U.S. international adjudication during my tenure. Of course, my term in office is now long ago, and there have been major changes in the world since then. The United States, for example, has gone from contending with one large elephant to dealing with 1,000 snakes.
The main lesson that I drew from my days in L is that, if the U.S. Government is to realize the full benefit of the potential contribution of its international lawyers, the lawyers need to participate from the beginning of a takeoff in policy and not just in a crash landing whenever things go wrong. This is especially so where the use of force by the United States is involved, and that applies in my judgment whether that use of force is overt or covert. In this connection, I will compare the overt Grenada “rescue mission” with the supposedly covert mining of the harbors in Nicaragua.
A lot of my days in L were devoted to U.S. participation in the peaceful settlement of disputes by international adjudication, and I will also comment on that subject.
Mycobacterial cervical lymphadenopathy is relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom; when cases do occur opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment may be missed. We have reviewed twenty-three cases of mycobacterial cervical lymphadenopathy presenting to an urban general hospital over a four-year period. We discuss the techniques available to aid a diagnosis of mycobacterial disease and suggest a protocol to allow efficient use of these techniques.
Of 219 elderly patients with a major depressive disorder (meeting RDC), 69 recovered sufficiently and consented to enter a two-year double-blind placebo-controlled trial of dothiepin. Survival analysis revealed that dothiepin reduced the relative risk of relapse by two and a half times. Past but not current serious physical illness was also associated with a favourable outcome, whereas a prolonged index depressive illness trebled the relative risk of relapse. In the light of previous research on prognosis it is suggested that elderly persons who recover from a major depressive illness should continue with antidepressant medication for at least two years, if not indefinitely.