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Acupuncture has become increasingly popular in veterinary medicine. Within the scientific literature there is debate regarding its efficacy. Due to the complex nature of acupuncture, a scoping review was undertaken to identify and categorize the evidence related to acupuncture in companion animals (dogs, cats, and horses). Our search identified 843 relevant citations. Narrative reviews represented the largest proportion of studies (43%). We identified 179 experimental studies and 175 case reports/case series that examined the efficacy of acupuncture. Dogs were the most common subjects in the experimental trials. The most common indication for use was musculoskeletal conditions, and the most commonly evaluated outcome categories among experimental trials were pain and cardiovascular parameters. The limited number of controlled trials and the breadth of indications for use, outcome categories, and types of acupuncture evaluated present challenges for future systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials addressing the most common clinical uses of acupuncture, and using consistent and clinically relevant outcomes, to inform conclusions regarding the efficacy of acupuncture in companion animals.
Data from the in-school sample of the PROSPER preventive intervention dissemination trial were used to investigate associations between alcohol dehydrogenase genes and alcohol use across adolescence, and whether substance misuse interventions in the 6th and 7th grades (targeting parenting, family functioning, social norms, youth decision making, and peer group affiliations) modified associations between these genes and adolescent use. Primary analyses were run on a sample of 1,885 individuals and included three steps. First, we estimated unconditional growth curve models with separate slopes for alcohol use from 6th to 9th grade and from 9th to 12th grade, as well as the intercept at Grade 9. Second, we used intervention condition and three alcohol dehydrogenase genes, 1B (ADH1B), 1C (ADH1C), and 4 (ADH4) to predict variance in slopes and intercept. Third, we examined whether genetic influences on model slopes and intercepts were moderated by intervention condition. The results indicated that the increase in alcohol use was greater in early adolescence than in middle adolescence; two of the genes, ADH1B and ADH1C, significantly predicted early adolescent slope and Grade 9 intercept, and associations between ADH1C and both early adolescent slope and intercept were significantly different across control and intervention conditions.
This paper describes laboratory research performed to determine the effects of crude and diesel oils on the porous sub-structure of Arctic sea ice. It includes a qualitative description of what occurs when oil is placed under the ice and an evaluation of some quantitative measurements made to determine the maximum extent to which crude oil can spread in an Arctic environment.
We study the relation between photospheric and wind parameters of LBV’s on the basis of self-consistent atmospheric models. Our theoretical model consists of a spherically extended, dynamical NLTE atmosphere for the radiative transfer and a modified CAK code for the hydrodynamics. These codes are combined in an iterative scheme to achieve self-consistency.
An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at < 200 W/m2 irradiation; 0.99 power factor, 87% efficiency and 0.088 distortion factor for dc supplies; 1 ns synchronization resolution via Ethernet; database accelerators allowing 85% energy savings for servers; adaptive software yielding energy reduction of 73% for e-Commerce applications; processors and corresponding data links with 40% and 70% energy savings, respectively, by adaption of clock frequency and supply voltage in less than 20 ns; clock generator chip with tunable frequency from 83-666 MHz and 0.62-1.6 mW dc power; 90 Gb/s on-chip link over 6 mm and efficiency of 174 fJ/mm; dynamic biasing system doubling efficiency in power amplifiers; 60 GHz BiCMOS frontends with dc power to bandwidth ratio of 0.17 mW/MHz; driver assistance systems reducing energy consumption by 10% in cars
Systems of stochastic chemical kinetics are modeled as infinite level-dependent quasi-birth-and-death (LDQBD) processes. For these systems, in contrast to many other applications, levels have an increasing number of states as the level number increases and the probability mass may reside arbitrarily far away from lower levels. Ideas from Lyapunov theory are combined with existing matrix-analytic formulations to obtain accurate approximations to the stationary probability distribution when the infinite LDQBD process is ergodic. Results of numerical experiments on a set of problems are provided.
This paper discusses the formation of silicon nanocrystals, nc-Si, by thermal annealing of hydrogenated amorphous thin films of SiOx, x<2 and (Si, C)Ox, x<2. Comparisons are made with SiCx films, providing additional insights into pathways for generation of nc-Si. These alloys are used as model systems for understanding chemical and structural relaxations occurring at Si-SiO2 and SiC-SiO2 interfaces during post-oxidation thermal annealing. This then provides important information for optimized processing of Si-SiO2 and SiC-SiO2 interfaces for device applications.
The introduced exotic vines pale and black swallowwort rapidly have become invasive throughout regions of the northeastern United States and adjoining areas of Canada. Preliminary studies have reported that the species are allelopathic, possibly contributing to their competitive ability and invasiveness. Results from our laboratory assays indicated that swallowwort root exudates caused significant root length reductions (e.g., 40% for butterfly milkweed and 20% for large crabgrass) and reduced germination (e.g., 25% for lettuce) of indicator species. Additional bioassays with dried swallowwort tissues demonstrated that tissue leachates caused varied responses in indicators, with both significant stimulatory and inhibitory effects. In particular, significant congeneric interactions were noted between the two swallowwort species. Evidence from this study of swallowwort tissue phytotoxicity has important implications for developing effective management and habitat restoration strategies for the two invasive species.
Some perspective concerning the capabilities and potential of epitaxial oxide films is gained by comparison with the field of semiconductor epitaxy. The specific epitaxial behavior of MgO, (ZrY)O2, and the layered cuprates is discussed. A suggestion is given for a method of searching for higher temperature superconductors by the use of epitaxial indusions in layered structures.