To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter reviews the spread of irrigation technology across the Sahara in antiquity, and its effects on settlement agriculture and the movement of people. Recent work has stressed the close connections between the introduction of foggara technology and the rise of Garamantian civilisation, which featured intensive agriculture and incipient urbanism. However, many oases achieved substantial size through the use of well technologies, artesian springs or a combination of technologies. Another key question relates to the effects of the eventual decline and failure of these irrigation systems in terms of population movement and fragmentation of states such as the Garamantes. After presenting new AMS dating evidence for Garamantian foggaras, the chapter advances the discussion by examining the wider picture of foggara distribution within a survey of the evidence of irrigation technologies across the Sahara and whether and to what extent the distribution of foggaras beyond the core Garamantian heartlands might be seen as an indication of Garamantian control or influence. It explores what foggaras, wells and new crop introductions might suggest about agricultural intensification and organisation. This has implications for assessing agricultural intensification in the ancient Sahara. Finally, it considers causes and possible effects of irrigation failure and in some cases collapse.
Using an ensemble of close- and long-range remote sensing, lake bathymetry and regional meteorological data, we present a detailed assessment of the geometric changes of El Morado Glacier in the Central Andes of Chile and its adjacent proglacial lake between 1932 and 2019. Overall, the results revealed a period of marked glacier down wasting, with a mean geodetic glacier mass balance of −0.39 ± 0.15 m w.e.a−1 observed for the entire glacier between 1955 and 2015 with an area loss of 40% between 1955 and 2019. We estimate an ice elevation change of −1.00 ± 0.17 m a−1 for the glacier tongue between 1932 and 2019. The increase in the ice thinning rates and area loss during the last decade is coincident with the severe drought in this region (2010–present), which our minimal surface mass-balance model is able to reproduce. As a result of the glacier changes observed, the proglacial lake increased in area substantially between 1955 and 2019, with bathymetry data suggesting a water volume of 3.6 million m3 in 2017. This study highlights the need for further monitoring of glacierised areas in the Central Andes. Such efforts would facilitate a better understanding of the downstream impacts of glacier downwasting.
Despite advances in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and improvements in obstetric care, pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains a leading cause of cardiac maternal death in the developed world. The last three decades have seen the development of effective therapies for specific forms of PH, improving patients’ symptoms and more than doubling survival in some forms of PH. Consequently there are an increasing number of women of childbearing potential with PH. Women may present for the first time, with PH in pregnancy, in the early post-partum period or patients with PH may consider pregnancy despite counselling regarding the high risks.
Home care for older people in England is commissioned through local authorities working predominantly with independent providers of care. Commissioners operate in a market model, planning and procuring home care services for local populations. Their role involves ‘managing’ and ‘shaping’ the market to ensure an adequate supply of care providers. Another imperative, emerging from the principles of personalisation, is the drive to achieve user outcomes rather than ‘time and task’ objectives. Little formal research has investigated the way commissioners reconcile these different requirements and organise commissioning. This study investigated commissioning approaches using qualitative telephone interviews with ten commissioners from different local authorities in England. The characteristics of commissioning were analysed thematically. Findings indicated (a) commissioning involved complex systems and processes, uniquely shaped for the local context, but frequently changed, suggesting a constant need for reframing commissioning arrangements; (b) partnerships with providers were mainly transactional, with occasional examples of collaborative models, that were considered to facilitate flexible services more appropriate for commissioning for personalised outcomes; and (c) only a small number of commissioners had attempted to reconcile the competing and incompatible goals of tightly prescribed contracting and working collaboratively with providers. A better understanding of flexible contracting arrangements and the hallmarks of a trusting collaboration is required to move beyond the procedural elements of contracting and commissioning.
Our understanding about the genetic influences on human disease has increased dramatically with the technological developments in genome and DNA analysis and the discovery of the human genome sequence. Whilst much remains unexplained, it is obvious that normal cardiac development is controlled by the genome and there is significant evidence that a proportion of cardiac malformations are caused by genetic factors. This is important for clinicians as an understanding of confirmed genetic factors is essential to estimate recurrence risks of congenital heart disease (CHD) within families and also screen for predicted associated anomalies. An accurate genetic diagnosis can provide important prognostic information for both the initial patient (proband) and other family members, for whom further genetic investigations may be indicated. There is likely to be a continued increase in demand for such investigations as improvement in surgical and medical management allows more individuals with CHD to survive to reproductive age and have families of their own. For some, the recurrence risk for a cardiac malformation may be as high as 50%; the actual figure varies with different genetic diagnoses. Accurate risk stratification is likely to become increasingly important and the rapidly developing technologies to detect genetic variation mean that genome-wide investigation is becoming more widely available in the clinical setting. An aim of this chapter is to introduce clinicians to principles that will help them embrace and understand the results from these investigations and appreciate the implications they have for their patients.
Looking to evolutionary biology for lessons applicable to cultural and political evolution, David Sloan Wilson brings the book to a conclusion with his discussion of symbolic systems as the most effective and organic model for societal transformation. Building on the literature of professors of genetics and evolution, and on his own earlier work on evolutionary theory and economics, Wilson demonstrates that many of the assumptions undergirding the national security state are due for reform as a matter of future existence, beginning with ideas about theories of governance.
The essays in this volume of Fourteenth Century England engage with many of the themes and subjects which make the period so attractive to scholars and the wider public alike. The authors reflect on issues of kingship and changing theories of power at a number of levels; they tackle questions concerning loyalty and rebellion; examine the role of law, both domestic and international; give consideration to the nature of memory – legal, historical and fabricated; and they address the relationship between the Plantagenets and the rulers of those nations and territories over which England claimed dominion.
In so doing, the essays draw on a vibrant array of new scholarship, some of which was published in earlier volumes of FCE, that is transforming our understanding of and approach to the later Middle Ages. They also take advantage of sources which are now much easier to access and which can be interrogated in new ways. The digital revolution has shaped the direction of a good deal of recent research both in terms of international collaborations and what individual scholars may study and how they conduct their studies. The establishment of major databases and digitized source collections has been a key feature of this process. In addition to opening new avenues of enquiry such resources have also prompted a return to more familiar subjects by allowing investigations to be carried out in wholly new ways. Prosopographical work using such materials and employing data analysis software in order to explore the relationships between members of various groups is only one example of this.
As with earlier volumes in this series, several contributions to this collection originated in papers sponsored by the Society for Fourteenth Century Studies at the International Medieval Congress (University of Leeds) and the Society of the White Hart at the International Conference on Medieval Studies (University of Western Michigan). Over many years, these meetings have helped shape broader scholarly agendas as well as individual research projects while maintaining a tradition of friendly collegiality. They have ensured that the fourteenth century, a period of intense and often brutal change, is a very welcoming one to study.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
During the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire grew through its invasion of Dutch colonies around the Indian Ocean rim. The incursions entwined British and Dutch politics, cultures, and social networks. These developments were significant for the Dutch East Indies, but have received relatively little attention in histories of the Second British Empire. In light of recent interest in Anglo-Dutch interaction, connectivity across empires, and the uses of prosopography to question the boundaries of imperial history, this article uses Dutch biographies to interrogate the relationship between the politics of liberal reform and despotism in the Cape Colony and Java under the British. A dialectic between despotism and liberalism dominates the Second Empire's historiography. Conversely, tracing the biographies of two interstitial figures who passed between the Dutch Empire and that of Britain shows how despotism and reform were connected. The Dutch drew notions of reform from their social networks into the Cape and Java through their manipulation of loyalist rhetoric. Concurrently, the use of such rhetoric legitimized societies and controls linked to the entrenchment of autocracy. This article thus reveals links between connectivity and control in Britain's Indian Ocean empire.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection can lead to reproductive morbidity in women. Animal models suggest that protection against CT is mediated through the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), produced by CD4+ T-cells, which clears CT through intracellular tryptophan depletion. In humans, correlates of protection remain to be elucidated, which hinders chlamydia vaccine development. Natural clearance of CT infection (e.g., clearance before antibiotics) may be an immunological correlate of protection, evidenced by (1) CT clearance without antibiotics; and (2) a 4-fold reduced risk of CT reinfection within 6 months. We have identified women with and without natural clearance of CT infection. By comparing these two groups of women, the role of IFN-γ-mediated natural clearance of CT infection will be investigated. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Through collaboration with a cohort study of CT-infected women, we have access to stored specimens from women who naturally cleared CT or had persisting CT infection. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), we will assess whether natural clearance of CT infection is associated with IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T-cells by stimulating PBMC ex vivo with CT antigens using intracellular cytokine staining. We will also use cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and untargeted High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to assess for tryptophan-dependent and -independent metabolic pathways associated with natural clearance of CT infection. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS:: To date, IFN-γ has been measured in 10 women who did not clear CT infection, demonstrating that <20% of these women produced significant levels of IFN-γ. Women who naturally cleared CT have yet to be studied. Untargeted HPLC-MS has been performed on 6 women (3 who cleared matched to 3 with persisting CT infection). To date, 11 pathways that are significantly associated with natural clearance have been identified. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The outcome of natural clearance of CT infection is distinct from women with persisting chlamydia. These studies may inform whether IFN-γ, produced by CD4+ T-cells, or tryptophan-dependent or -independent metabolic pathways are associated with natural clearance, which may advance chlamydia vaccine development.