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To determine whether antimicrobial-impregnated textiles decrease the acquisition of pathogens by healthcare provider (HCP) clothing.
We completed a 3-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of 2 types of antimicrobial-impregnated clothing compared to standard HCP clothing. Cultures were obtained from each nurse participant, the healthcare environment, and patients during each shift. The primary outcome was the change in total contamination on nurse scrubs, measured as the sum of colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
Nurses working in medical and surgical ICUs in a 936-bed tertiary-care hospital.
Nurse subjects wore standard cotton-polyester surgical scrubs (control), scrubs that contained a complex element compound with a silver-alloy embedded in its fibers (Scrub 1), or scrubs impregnated with an organosilane-based quaternary ammonium and a hydrophobic fluoroacrylate copolymer emulsion (Scrub 2). Nurse participants were blinded to scrub type and randomly participated in all 3 arms during 3 consecutive 12-hour shifts in the intensive care unit.
In total, 40 nurses were enrolled and completed 3 shifts. Analyses of 2,919 cultures from the environment and 2,185 from HCP clothing showed that scrub type was not associated with a change in HCP clothing contamination (P=.70). Mean difference estimates were 0.118 for the Scrub 1 arm (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.206 to 0.441; P=.48) and 0.009 for the Scrub 2 rm (95% CI, −0.323 to 0.342; P=.96) compared to the control. HCP became newly contaminated with important pathogens during 19 of the 120 shifts (16%).
Antimicrobial-impregnated scrubs were not effective at reducing HCP contamination. However, the environment is an important source of HCP clothing contamination.
High-quality data from appropriate archives are needed for the continuing improvement of radiocarbon calibration curves. We discuss here the basic assumptions behind 14C dating that necessitate calibration and the relative strengths and weaknesses of archives from which calibration data are obtained. We also highlight the procedures, problems, and uncertainties involved in determining atmospheric and surface ocean 14C/12C in these archives, including a discussion of the various methods used to derive an independent absolute timescale and uncertainty. The types of data required for the current IntCal database and calibration curve model are tabulated with examples.
The IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon calibration curves have been revised utilizing newly available and updated data sets from 14C measurements on tree rings, plant macrofossils, speleothems, corals, and foraminifera. The calibration curves were derived from the data using the random walk model (RWM) used to generate IntCal09 and Marine09, which has been revised to account for additional uncertainties and error structures. The new curves were ratified at the 21st International Radiocarbon conference in July 2012 and are available as Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org. The database can be accessed at http://intcal.qub.ac.uk/intcal13/.
The advance in Electron Backscatter Diffraction known as High Resolution EBSD has permitted the strain tensor components and neighbour disorientation measurements to be mapped at resolutions better than 2 parts in 10000. Following earlier research into this technique which was focused on verifying the sensitivity and accuracy of the measurements, recent studies have involved investigations on semiconductor and metallic polycrystalline materials. In particular observations of localized regions where residual strains exceeded the macroscopic yield stress have been thoroughly investigated to eliminate experimental error as a possible explanation. No such cause was found. Strain measurements on polycrystalline steels in uniaxial tension and during thermal stress relieving thermal treatment have also been carried out. Maps of the strain distribution during elastic loading and early stages of plastic flow showed hot spots of high strain as in the static tests but overall the measured elastic strain was equal to the applied strain.
There is an increased appreciation of the need for horizon scanning: the identification and assessment of issues that could be serious in the future but have currently attracted little attention. However, a process is lacking to identify appropriate responses by policy makers and practitioners. We thus suggest a process and trial its applicability. Twelve environmental conservation organizations assessed each of 15 previously identified horizon scanning issues for their impact upon their organization and the urgency with which they should consider the issue. They also identified triggers that would result in changes in their scoring of the likely urgency and impact of the issues. This process enables organizations to identify priority issues, identify issues they can ignore until there are further developments, benchmark priorities across organizations and identify cross-organizational priorities that warrant further attention, so providing an agenda for collation of evidence, research and policy development. In this trial the review of responses by other organizations resulted in the upgrading of response by a substantial proportion of organizations for eight of the 15 issues examined. We suggest this approach, with the novel components of collaborative assessment and identification of triggers, could be adopted widely, both within conservation organizations and across a wider range of policy issues.
The coastline along the southern Arabian Gulf between Al Jubail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Dubai, UAE, appears to have risen at least 125 m in the last 18,000 years. Dating and topographic surveying of paleo-dunes (43–53 ka), paleo-marine terraces (17–30 ka), and paleo-marine shorelines (3.3–5.5 ka) document a rapid, > 1 mm/a subsidence, followed by a 6 mm/a uplift that is decreasing with time. The mechanism causing this movement remains elusive but may be related to the translation of the coastal area through the backbasin to forebulge hinge line movement of the Arabian plate or, alternatively, by movement of the underlying Infracambrian-age Hormuz salt in response to sea-level changes associated with continental glaciation. Independent of the mechanism, rapid and episodic uplift may impact the design of engineering projects such as nuclear power plants, airports, and artificial islands as well as the interpretation of sedimentation and archeology of the area.
The Center for Materials for Information Technology has a mission of outreach to middle school students. For the past two years our Center has run a summer research experiences for teachers (RET) program. A primary emphasis of the Center's educational outreach activities involves collaboration with a very innovative 6th to 8th grade Integrated Science (IS) curriculum based in the Center for Communication and Educational Technology at the University of Alabama. Each summer three teachers from the IS program spent ten weeks working in the Center to develop demonstrations or activities for use in their classrooms. The emphasis was on demonstrations of magnetism and magnetic materials. In addition to these activities, the teachers have also assisted in the development of Computer Aided Instructional (CAI) software for use in their science classrooms. Both the activities and the software developed this summer will be made available to all of the teachers and students participating in the IS curriculum, approximately 1400 teachers and 170,000 students.
Cementitious waste forms are being considered for immobilizing nuclear waste before disposal. In earlier work, it was found that irradiation of a mortar formulation consisting of slag, portland cement, fly ash, water, and up to 10 wt % KCI-LiCl salt resulted in the generation of hydrogen. Yields were relatively high and the rates of generation were constant for the irradiation period investigated. The addition of small amounts of oxygenrich electron scavengers (NaN03, NaI04, KMn04, or Ag20) to the mortar was investigated as a means for reducing hydrogen yields. The addition of NaN03 reduced the hydrogen yield; changed the radiolytic products from hydrogen to a mixture of hydrogen, nitrogen, and N20; and reduced the pressurization rate after exposure to 400 Mrads. The addition of NaI04 and KMn04 reduced hydrogen yields slightly while the addition of Ag20 increased the yield. Moreover, the addition of FeS to a non-slag mortar changed the radiolysis mechanism but the addition of FeO did not. The results of these experiments provided an insight into the nature of the radiolytic reactions occurring in the mortar formulations and indicated that the radiolytic generation of gases might be controlled with the proper choice of additive.
Lead bis-tetramethylheptadionate (Pb(thd)2) is an extremely useful precursor for the preparation of lead-based thin films such as PZT, lead titanate, etc. In this paper, lead oxide was deposited from Pb(thd)2 in a hot-walled CVD reactor using oxygen as a reactive species and diluent gas. XRD and SEM were used to determine the structure of the material deposited by the CVD process. The CVD process consistently produced the monoxide of lead which was found to consist of a mixture of orthorhombic PbO with small tetragonal PbO platelets. TEM was used to determine the orientation of the individual platelets which was found to be consistently normal to the <201> family of zone axes. Deposition rates were determined and simulated using an FEM computer model to determine the rate constants for the overall deposition process.
Transparent and highly specular PbTiO3 thin films were deposited on sapphire, platinum and ruthenium oxide-coated silicon wafers by hot-wall metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Lead bis-tetramethylheptadionate and titanium ethoxide were used as chemical precursors. Films were deposited over a range of experimental conditions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the phases present in the films; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the composition. Optical spectra were obtained to confirm the highly dense and transparent nature of the films. The chemical stability of the ruthenium oxide substrates in the MOCVD environment as well as the existence of a high-temperature deposition regime for composition control are also discussed.
A new diamine monomer was synthesized by condensing 4,4'-methylene dianiline with 1,4-benzoquinone. The monomer was condensed with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride to give a polyamic acid that was soluble in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. The polyamic acid was cast onto iron and thermally imidized to give the amine-quinone polyimide (AQPI-2). AQPI-2 had a thermal decomposition temperature (10% weight loss) of 540°C and a glass transition near 290°C, values typical of polyimides. The degradation of the coating on iron after exposure to NaCl electrolyte was followed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under these conditions a conventional polyimide failed after 3 days exposure, while AQPI-2 showed no change after 34 days exposure. The adhesive bond between the amine-quinone polyimide and the iron surface was so strong that it could not be broken by the electrolyte.
The genome of the house fly, Musca domestica, contains an active transposable element system, called Hermes. Using PCR and inverse PCR we amplified and sequenced overlapping segments of several Hermes elements and from these data we have constructed a 2749 bp consensus Hermes DNA sequence. Hermes termini are composed of 17 bp imperfect inverted repeats that are almost identical to the inverted terminal repeats of the hobo element of Drosophila melanogaster. Full length Hermes elements contain a single long ORF capable of encoding a protein of 612 amino acids which is 55% identical to the amino acid sequence of the hobo transposase. Comparison of the ends of the Hermes and hobo elements to those of the Ac element of Zea mays, and the Tam3 element of Antirrhinum majus, as well as several other plant and insect elements, revealed a conserved terminal sequence motif. Thus Hermes is clearly a member of the hobo, Ac and Tam3 (hAT) transposable element family, other members of which include the Tagl element from Arabidopsis thaliana and the Bg element from Zea mays. The evolution of this class of transposable elements and the potential utility of Hermes as a genetic tool in M. domestica and related species are discussed.