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The flora of Mediterranean ecosystems contains families with species having fully and under-developed embryos in their seeds. After-ripening for physiological dormancy release and smoke influence germination in many species. We investigated how after-ripening and embryo growth interact with smoke to influence the temporal dynamics of seedling emergence among fire ephemerals. Seeds were placed in the field and under standardized (50% relative humidity, 30°C) laboratory conditions to test the effects of summer conditions on physiological dormancy loss. Germination was tested with water or smoke compounds (smoke water, KAR1) at a simulated autumn/winter temperature (18/7°C). The timing and amount of seedling emergence with smoke was observed for seeds exposed to near-natural conditions. During summer, physiological dormancy was broken in all species, enabling germination at autumn/winter but not summer temperatures; no embryo growth occurred in seeds with under-developed embryos. At the start of the wet season, seedling emergence from seeds with fully developed embryos occurred earlier than from seeds with under-developed embryos. In a non-consistent manner among our study species, smoke and smoke compounds influenced the rate of embryo growth and amount of germination. Effects of smoke were noticeable in terms of number of emergents in the first emergence season. Among ecologically similar species, we have shown (1) that both thermal and embryo traits exclude germination in the summer, (2) how embryo size influences the timing of seedling emergence in autumn–winter, and (3) a reduced requirement for smoke in the second emergence season after a fire with a shift to reliance on seasonal cues for emergence.
A new sample support film for small spot XRF analysis has been developed that improves detection limits by a factor of 10 over traditional polymer supports. The surface characteristics of this new film are excellent for retaining drops of sample solution in one place and allowing the solution to dry into a single spot A dimpling technique was developed to further aid in concentrating the evaporated samples to the prescribed spot size and position. The film showed good resistance to chemical attacfc from the solution, even some strong acids and bases. The detection limits achieved using micro sample XRF with the ultra thin sample support were sufficient to be a comparable alternative to ICP-MS and GFAAS for elemental analysis.
Telephone cognitive–behaviour therapy (TCBT) may be a cost-effective method for improving access to evidence-based treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in young people.
Economic evaluation of TCBT compared with face-to-face CBT for OCD in young people.
Randomised non-inferiority trial comparing TCBT with face-to-face CBT for 72 young people (aged 11 to 18) with a diagnosis of OCD. Cost-effectiveness at 12-month follow-up was explored in terms of the primary clinical outcome (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, CY-BOCS) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (trial registration: ISRCTN27070832).
Total health and social care costs were higher for face-to-face CBT (mean total cost £2965, s.d. = £1548) than TCBT (mean total cost £2475, s.d. = £1024) but this difference was non-significant (P = 0.118). There were no significant between-group differences in QALYs or the CY-BOCS and there was strong evidence to support the clinical non-inferiority of TCBT. Cost-effectiveness analysis suggests a 74% probability that face-to-face CBT is cost-effective compared with TCBT in terms of QALYs, but the result was less clear in terms of CY-BOCS, with TCBT being the preferred option at low levels of willingness to pay and the probability of either intervention being cost-effective at higher levels of willingness to pay being around 50%.
Although cost-effectiveness of TCBT was sensitive to the outcome measure used, TCBT should be considered a clinically non-inferior alternative when access to standard clinic-based CBT is limited, or when patient preference is expressed.
Declaration of interest
D.M.-C. reports research grants from the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet), the Swedish Research Council for Health, working life and welfare (Forte), the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the UK National Institute of Health Research (NIHR), as well as royalties from Wolters Kluwer Health and Elsevier, all unrelated to the submitted work.
This article discusses the London & North Western Railway’s (LNWR) marketing activities before 1914. It extends our understanding of British railway marketing by examining how the company forged links with stakeholders in North Wales, particularly the resort authorities, in support of its development of the tourist trade there. While the company remained the dominant force in promoting the region, cooperative working facilitated the sharing of market intelligence, exchange of best practice, coordination of advertising efforts, coordination of services, and the harmonizing of a promotional message that appealed to middle-class discretionary travelers that North Wales was a place for health and pleasure. The article also shows how the LNWR deployed a system of integrated marketing communications, providing one of the earliest known examples within British business of such practice. The sum result was positive impacts on the development of the North Welsh tourist trade in the years before the World War I.
In May 1998, the Council, meeting in the composition of Heads of State or Government, unanimously decided, in accordance with Article 121(2) EC, that eleven Member States fulfilled the necessary conditions to move towards the third and final stage of economic and monetary union (EMU) with the adoption of the single currency on 1 January 1999. This article will discuss the legal position of the Member States which did not initially progress to the third stage of EMU, in particular, the opt-outs exercised by the United Kingdom (UK) and Denmark. There follows an analysis of the extent of the UK and Danish opt-outs and the derogation which exists in relation to Sweden (and previously Greece) together with the role of these Member States in the new institutional framework as in operation from 1 January 1999. The current political discussions on the Euro taking place within the UK and Denmark will be highlighted.
Motivated by growing concern as to the many threats that islands face, subsequent calls for more extensive island nature conservation and recent discussion in the conservation literature about the potential for wellbeing as a useful approach to understanding how conservation affects people's lives, this paper reviews the literature in order to explore how islands and wellbeing relate and how conservation might impact that relationship. We apply a three-dimensional concept of social wellbeing to structure the discussion and illustrate the importance of understanding island–wellbeing interactions in the context of material, relational and subjective dimensions, using examples from the literature. We posit that islands and their shared characteristics of ‘islandness’ provide a useful setting in which to apply social wellbeing as a generalizable framework, which is particularly adept at illuminating the relevance of social relationships and subjective perceptions in island life – aspects that are often marginalized in more economically focused conservation impact assessments. The paper then explores in more depth the influences of island nature conservation on social wellbeing and sustainability outcomes using two case studies from the global north (UK islands) and global south (the Solomon Islands). We conclude that conservation approaches that engage with all three dimensions of wellbeing seem to be associated with success.
Star-formation in dwarf starburst galaxies can be quite intense for their sizes, especially in the very young ones characterized by Wolf-Rayet emission features. Since stars form out of molecular gas (H2), it is important to investigate in detail, where the molecular gas is relative to the star formation in such young starbursts. The molecular gas may also indicate what might have triggered the starburst. The ISM in dwarfs can be quite warm, is the molecular gas also warm? In an attempt to investigate the properties of molecular gas in WR galaxies we have obtained high resolution images of the J = 2–1 transitions of CO for two dwarf starbursts, NGC5253 and He2–10. Both galaxies are nearby dwarf starbursts with WR emission features (e.g., Conti 1991). NGC 5253 may be one of the youngest starbursts known (e.g., Rieke, Lebofsky & Walker 1988).
We present aperture synthesis maps of the CO J=2-1 emission in the central region of the spiral galaxy IC 342. The 4” resolution maps reveal emission that is a factor of two brighter than the CO (1-0) emission mapped at the same resolution. Since the CO (2-1) emission is likely to be optically thick, the high ratio is probably due to the fact that the two transitions sample different cloud layers in externally heated clouds. The high signal to noise of the maps indicates that CO (2-1) will be a powerful tool in the study of gas in galaxies.
Comments in the literature in recent years reveal a variety of misconceptions about the role and value of galactic clusters for calibrating the Cepheid period-luminosity-colour (PLC) relation. This paper attempts to clarify some of these points using personal experiences gained from studies of the sparse galactic clusters and groups in which some classical Cepheids are located.
Reddening is often blamed for problems originating from other causes. Three features of reddening are sometimes overlooked: (i) no universal reddening law applies to all fields, (ii) mean reddening laws are not applicable to samples of dispersed objects, and (iii) patchy extinction is the norm.
This article explains the context of the slogan aired by troopers of the Anatolikon in the presence of Constantine IV (668-85): ‘[if we] believe in a trinity, [let us] crown [all] three’. The number ‘three’ was of symbolical significance for the Anatoliks, reflecting the Holy Trinity (the antithesis of Islam), the original number of themes, and the usual number of co-emperors in the Heraklid dynasty. The ‘collegiate’ rationale of the themata conflicted with the rejuvenated imperial ideology of the emperor, who may have tried to dilute the power of the themata in 681, after the sixth ecumenical council had triumphantly defeated monothelitism and re-established the authority of a single emperor, on the pattern of Justinian the Great. At that point in time, the co-emperors were deposed and mutilated.
Results are presented of a semi-empirical investigation of the transformation relations between colors and magnitudes in Lindsey Smith's narrow band photometric system for WR stars and their corresponding parameters in the broad band UBV system. A preliminary application of these relations to the study of WR stars in open clusters indicates that the intrinsic colors of WR stars are slightly bluer than the values tabulated by Smith, and that single WN stars are less luminous than previously supposed.