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All psychological and psychophysiological traits vary, often widely, about their stable set-point values, due to transitory environmental influences. Because it is this stable set-point that embodies the genetically determined component of the trait, twin and family data based on one-time trait measurements must underestimate true trait heritability. The means of multiple measurements, taken months or years apart, then correlated within pairs of monozygotic twins, would yield an accurate estimate of the broad heritability of the set-point value, but such data are rare and expensive. Given just two measurements sufficiently far apart, the cross-twin cross-time correlation (RCT), divided by the retest or within-twin cross-time correlation (RWT), provides a valid estimate of set-point heritability. This article examines data from young and middle-aged twins who were tested twice, 3 or more years apart, on heart rate and blood pressure, personality traits, self-rating items, occupational and recreational interests, as well as on Wechsler Intelligence Scales. In every case, the disattenuated RCT revealed substantially higher heritability than indicated by correlations based on single measurements.
Endorsing Mealey's analysis, it is pointed out that increasing rates of crime and violence are due to increasing proportions of children being reared in circumstances radically different from the extendedfamily environment to which we are evolntionarily adapted, that is, they are reared without fathers.
“3. For the first time, it has been possible to map out in a
clear and unambiguous manner the neurological determinants of the major
dimensions of personality and to show, after more than two millennia, the
essential validity of the fourfold classification of temperaments into the melancholic, sanguine, phlegmatic, and choleric types.
“4. The same fundamental dimensions of neurological variation
determine the ‘structure’ of intelligence, and with this new
knowledge, it is possible to reconcile earlier conflicting notions of
intelligence structure proposed by Spearman and Cattell.
“9. Reference to the new theory demonstrates how Freud was led to
erroneous conclusions, and alternative explanations are provided for the
chief phenomena of chief interest to him.
“15. No less important than the medical and educational
applications, there is a sure and certain basis for providing vocational
guidance and for the determination of employee selection criteria which
would guarantee major improvements in human resource management.”
In modern societies around the world, most romantic relationships begin when two people meet and fall in love. Authorities (e.g., Walster & Walster, 1978), as well as most long-married couples, agree that the affection between mated partners occurs in two forms: romantic love, which normally comes first and then, if all goes well, is followed by the even stronger bond of companionate love and commitment. The initial or infatuation stage often starts surprisingly soon after the first meeting. When the infatuation is mutual, as it must usually be for a relationship to ensue, it is characterized both by delight and by a sense of wonderment. “Is it not remarkable that the one person I was meant to love has crossed my path and, more wonderful still, that my lover loves me too?” Romantic love blossoms early but, like the rose, it also in most cases languishes and dies too soon. The world over, for example, the modal period between marriage and divorce, if divorce occurs, is about four years (Fisher, 1991). In those relationships that last, however, infatuation's span is sufficient to permit the maturation of companionate love, a slower growing but much more enduring plant, which is based on shared experiences and shared investments and on a gradual intertwining of habit patterns, needs, and understandings.
To determine if the inability to take advantage
of the predictability of an aversive stimulus to diminish
its psychological impact reflects a deficit in inhibitory
control related to the development of substance dependence,
we recorded skin conductance responses (SCRs), heart rate
(HR), and anticipatory electrodermal nonspecific fluctuations
(NSFs) from 175 16–18-year-old boys when a white
noise blast was either unpredictable or temporally predictable.
Compared with boys who had moderately reduced or augmented
SCRs to predictable blasts (moderate and poor modulators,
respectively), boys whose SCRs were greatly reduced (good
modulators) had fewer symptoms of alcohol and nicotine
dependence and more anticipatory NSFs. HR appeared to index
an active coping response for good and moderate modulators.
The autonomic response pattern evident for good modulators
may index an inhibitory control mechanism protecting them
from developing substance dependence.
In a recent paper in this journal , Wilson offers a revision of his previously published method  for diagnosing the zygosity of twins from bloodtype findings. Wilson notes that his revised method will yield the same results (given the same estimates of gene frequencies) as will the methods described by Smith and Penrose , Sutton et al , and Lykken , and he advocates his new method, over the others, as being “simplest and most direct.” He also reinterprets various quantities employed by Lykken and proposes a different index of the efficiency of a genetic marker for zygosity diagnosis. In this note, I attempt to clarify the relationship between Wilson's revised method and my own, so that the reader can more accurately assess their relative advantages.
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