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The usefulness of viewing a culture through the lenses of indigenous psychology keywords is the central premise of this chapter. The authors argue that understanding the essence of wa (和) – harmony – in the Japanese experience is vital. Without denying possible etic phenomenology, the chapter argues that several Japanese emic concepts connect with 和 in a nomological network: namely, amae (presumed indulgence), aimai (ambiguity), giri and on (obligation and duty), honne and tatemae (true feelings and overt behavior), and shūdan-ishiki (group consciousness). We conclude by suggesting the use of a folk psychology approach to intercultural training – positive goal-oriented intercultural dialogue leading to the intercultural understanding of indigenous psychology keywords.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
Motivated by planetary-driven applications and experiments in non-spherical geometries, we study compressible fluid modes in rotating rigid ellipsoids. Such modes are also required for modal acoustic velocimetry (MAV), a promising non-invasive method to track the velocity field components in laboratory experiments. To calculate them, we develop a general spectral method in rigid triaxial ellipsoids. The description is based on an expansion onto global polynomial vector elements, satisfying the non-penetration condition on the boundary. Then, we investigate the diffusionless compressible modes in rotating (and magnetised) rigid ellipsoids. The spectral description is successfully benchmarked against three-dimensional finite-element computations and analytical predictions. A spectral convergence is obtained. Our results have direct implications for MAV in experiments, for instance in the ZoRo experiment (gas-filled rigid spheroid). So far, deformation and rotational effects have been theoretically considered separately, as small perturbations of the solutions in non-rotating spheres. We carefully compare the perturbation approach, in this illustrative geometry, to the polynomial solutions. We show that second-order ellipticity effects are often present, even in weakly deformed ellipsoids. Moreover, high-order effects due to rotation and/or ellipticity should be observed for some acoustic modes in experimental conditions. Thus, perturbation theory should be used with care in MAV. Instead, the spectral polynomial method paves the way for future MAV applications in fluid experiments with rigid ellipsoids.
Neuroanatomical abnormalities in first-episode psychosis (FEP) tend to be subtle and widespread. The vast majority of previous studies have used small samples, and therefore may have been underpowered. In addition, most studies have examined participants at a single research site, and therefore the results may be specific to the local sample investigated. Consequently, the findings reported in the existing literature are highly heterogeneous. This study aimed to overcome these issues by testing for neuroanatomical abnormalities in individuals with FEP that are expressed consistently across several independent samples.
Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging data were acquired from a total of 572 FEP and 502 age and gender comparable healthy controls at five sites. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate differences in grey matter volume (GMV) between the two groups. Statistical inferences were made at p < 0.05 after family-wise error correction for multiple comparisons.
FEP showed a widespread pattern of decreased GMV in fronto-temporal, insular and occipital regions bilaterally; these decreases were not dependent on anti-psychotic medication. The region with the most pronounced decrease – gyrus rectus – was negatively correlated with the severity of positive and negative symptoms.
This study identified a consistent pattern of fronto-temporal, insular and occipital abnormalities in five independent FEP samples; furthermore, the extent of these alterations is dependent on the severity of symptoms and duration of illness. This provides evidence for reliable neuroanatomical alternations in FEP, expressed above and beyond site-related differences in anti-psychotic medication, scanning parameters and recruitment criteria.
Previous studies using resting-state functional neuroimaging have revealed alterations in whole-brain images, connectome-wide functional connectivity and graph-based metrics in groups of patients with schizophrenia relative to groups of healthy controls. However, it is unclear which of these measures best captures the neural correlates of this disorder at the level of the individual patient.
Here we investigated the relative diagnostic value of these measures. A total of 295 patients with schizophrenia and 452 healthy controls were investigated using resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging at five research centres. Connectome-wide functional networks were constructed by thresholding correlation matrices of 90 brain regions, and their topological properties were analyzed using graph theory-based methods. Single-subject classification was performed using three machine learning (ML) approaches associated with varying degrees of complexity and abstraction, namely logistic regression, support vector machine and deep learning technology.
Connectome-wide functional connectivity allowed single-subject classification of patients and controls with higher accuracy (average: 81%) than both whole-brain images (average: 53%) and graph-based metrics (average: 69%). Classification based on connectome-wide functional connectivity was driven by a distributed bilateral network including the thalamus and temporal regions.
These results were replicated across the three employed ML approaches. Connectome-wide functional connectivity permits differentiation of patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls at single-subject level with greater accuracy; this pattern of results is consistent with the ‘dysconnectivity hypothesis’ of schizophrenia, which states that the neural basis of the disorder is best understood in terms of system-level functional connectivity alterations.
Mesoporous titania films are prepared via the polymer-template assisted sol-gel synthesis at low temperatures, using the titania precursor ethylene glycol-modified titanate (EGMT) and the diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-polyethyleneoxide (PS-b-PEO). UV-irradiation is chosen as a low temperature technique to remove the polymer template and thereby to obtain titania sponge-like nanostructures at processing temperatures below 100 °C. After different UV irradiation times, ranging for 0 h to 24 h, the surface and inner morphologies of the titania films are studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), respectively. The evolution of the band gap energies is investigated using ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy. The findings reveal that 12 h UV-treatment is sufficient to remove the polymer template from the titania/PS-b-PEO composite films with a thickness of 80 nm, and the determined bad gap energies indicate an incomplete crystallization of the titania nanostructures.
Explorations in Schenkerian Analysis is a collection of fifteen essays dedicated to the memory of Edward Laufer, an influential advocate of Schenker's method. The chapters are presented in chronological order by composer, opening with Charles Burkhart's contribution, which is presented as a letter to Edward Laufer (written before his death), and ending with excerpts from Stephen Slottow's 2003 interview with Laufer (in an appendix).While the unifying focus is Schenkerian analysis, there is considerable variety in the approaches taken by the contributors. There is also variety in the composers represented, ranging from Bach to Debussy and Strauss. The volume thus displays the scope and diversity of Schenkerian studies today.CONTRIBUTORS: Mark Anson-Cartwright, David Beach, Matthew Brown, Charles Burkhart, L. Poundie Burstein, Timothy L. Jackson, Roger Kamien, Leslie Kinton, Su Yin Mak, Ryan McClelland, Don McLean, Boyd Pomeroy, William Rothstein, Frank Samarotto, Stephen Slottow, Lauri SuurpääDavid Beach is professor emeritus and former dean of the Faculty of Music, University of Toronto. Su Yin Mak is associate professor of music at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Explorations in Schenkerian Analysis is a collection of essays written in memory of Edward Laufer (1938–2014), a prominent proponent of Schenkerian analysis, by former colleagues, friends, and students. Edward's introduction to Schenker came in a seminar taught by Ernst Oster at Princeton, where Edward was enrolled in the doctoral program in composition and theory. Prior to his studies at Princeton, he had completed a master's degree in composition at the University of Toronto and attended the Juilliard School of Music, where he studied composition with Roger Sessions, a major influence on his development, and piano with Edward Steuermann. At Princeton, he worked closely with several teachers, including Milton Babbitt, who was the advisor of his doctoral dissertation on Schoenberg's Four Songs, op. 22. Why he never submitted this last requirement for the PhD degree remains a mystery to his friends. Perhaps the reason lies in the disappointing reception of his paper on this topic at the AMS meeting in 1973, or perhaps his interest had shifted elsewhere by that time; or perhaps he simply would not put into print work about which he was not totally convinced—a characteristic trait that was to inform his approach to publication throughout his entire career. After all, Edward was a perfectionist. He devoted the utmost attention and respect to the music under study, and he expected the same level of care from others. Whatever the reason, clearly the pivotal event that shaped Edward's future was that seminar with Oster, with whom Edward continued to study privately until Oster's death in 1977. The rest is history; Edward Laufer became a leading advocate and practitioner of Schenkerian analysis in his generation.
For those who did not know him personally, Edward is probably best known for the voluminous handouts accompanying his conference presentations, which reveal not only his superior grasp of the literature, but also a mind-set, akin to Schenker's, that a broad view is necessary. Those who have had the privilege of working with him can additionally testify to his outstanding musicianship, intellectual elegance, and an old-school humanism that encompassed all aspects of culture. For thirty years (1974–2004) he taught at the University of Toronto.
We previously reported that patients with early-stage bipolar disorder,
but not healthy comparison controls, had body mass index (BMI)-related
volume reductions in limbic brain areas, suggesting that the structural
brain changes characteristic of bipolar disorder were more pronounced
with increased weight.
To determine whether the most consistently reported neurochemical
abnormality in bipolar disorder, increased glutamate/glutamine (Glx), was
also more prominent with higher BMI.
We used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure
hippocampal Glx in 51 patients with first-episode mania (mean BMI = 24.1)
and 28 healthy controls (mean BMI = 23.3).
In patients, but not healthy controls, linear regression demonstrated
that higher BMI predicted greater Glx. Factorial ANCOVA showed a
significant BMI×diagnosis interaction, confirming a distinct effect of
weight on Glx in patients.
Together with our volumetric studies, these results suggest that higher
BMI is associated with more pronounced structural and neurochemical
limbic brain changes in bipolar disorder, even in early-stage patients
with low obesity rates.